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See also: absolvé
First attested in the early 15th Century. From Middle English absolven, from Latin absolvere, present active infinitive of absolvō (“set free, acquit”), from ab (“away from”) + solvō (“loosen, free, release”). Doublet of assoil.
- (transitive) To set free, release or discharge (from obligations, debts, responsibility etc.). [First attested around 1350 to 1470.]
- You will absolve a subject from his allegiance.
- (transitive, obsolete) To resolve; to explain; to solve. [Attested from the late 15th century until the mid 17th century.]
- (transitive) To pronounce free from or give absolution for a penalty, blame, or guilt. [First attested in the mid 16th century.]
- (transitive, law) To pronounce not guilty; to grant a pardon for. [First attested in the mid 16th century.]
- (transitive, theology) To grant a remission of sin; to give absolution to. [First attested in the mid 16th century.]
- 1597, w:William Shakespeare, Romeo and Juliet, Act 3, Scene 5:
- To make confession and to be absolved.
- (transitive, theology) To remit a sin; to give absolution for a sin. [First attested in the late 16th century.]
- 1788, Edward Gibbon, chapter LXVII, in The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, volume VI, London: […] W[illiam] Strahan; and T[homas] Cadell, […], OCLC 995235880, page 447:
- In his name I abſolve your perjury and ſanctify your arms: follow my footſteps in the paths of glory and ſalvation; and if ſtill ye have ſcruples, devolve on my head the puniſhment and the ſin.
- (transitive, obsolete) To finish; to accomplish. [Attested from the late 16th century until the early 19th century.]
- (transitive) To pass a course or test; to gain credit for a class; to qualify academically.
- (to set free, release from obligations): Normally followed by the word from.
- (to pronounce free from; give absolution for blame): Normally followed by the word from.
- (set free): excuse, exempt, free, release
- (pronounce free or give absolution): acquit, exculpate, exonerate, pardon, remit, vindicate
- (theology: to pronounce free or give absolution from sin): remit
to set free
obsolete: to resolve or explain
to pronounce free or give absolution
law: to pronounce not guilty; to grant a pardon for
theology: to pronounce free or give absolution from sin
theology: to remit a sin; to give absolution for a sin
obsolete: to finish, accomplish
to pass a course or test; to gain credit for a class; to qualify academically
- The translations below need to be checked and inserted above into the appropriate translation tables, removing any numbers. Numbers do not necessarily match those in definitions. See instructions at Wiktionary:Entry layout § Translations.
Translations to be checked
- Lesley Brown, editor-in-chief; William R. Trumble and Angus Stevenson, editors (2002) , “absolve”, in The Shorter Oxford English Dictionary on Historical Principles, 5th edition, Oxford; New York, N.Y.: Oxford University Press, →ISBN, page 9