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U+9B5A, 魚
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-9B5A

[U+9B59]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+9B5B]

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
魚-order.gif

Han character[edit]

(radical 195, +0, 11 strokes, cangjie input 弓田火 (NWF), four-corner 27336, composition)

  1. Kangxi radical #195, .

Derived characters[edit]

Descendants[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 1465, character 1
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 45956
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1998, character 1
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 7, page 4674, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+9B5A

Chinese[edit]

trad.
simp.
variant forms 𤉯
𤋳
𩵋
𮫬

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
魚-oracle.svg 魚-bronze.svg 魚-seal.svg 魚-bigseal.svg
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*sŋaː
*sŋaː
*ŋa
*ŋa
*ŋa

Pictogram (象形) – pictographic representation of a fish.

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *s-ŋja. Cognate with (OC *ŋa, “to fish”).

Pronunciation[edit]


Note:
  • hî/hû/hîr - vernacular;
  • gû/gîr/gî - literary.
  • Wu

    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location
    Mandarin Beijing /y³⁵/
    Harbin /y²⁴/
    Tianjin /y⁴⁵/
    Jinan /y⁴²/
    Qingdao /y⁴²/
    Zhengzhou /y⁴²/
    Xi'an /y²⁴/
    Xining /y²⁴/
    Yinchuan /y⁵³/
    Lanzhou /y⁵³/
    Ürümqi /y⁵¹/
    Wuhan /y²¹³/
    Chengdu /y³¹/
    Guiyang /i²¹/
    Kunming /i³¹/
    Nanjing /y²⁴/
    Hefei /zz̩ʷ⁵⁵/
    Jin Taiyuan /y¹¹/
    Pingyao /ȵy¹³/
    Hohhot /y³¹/
    Wu Shanghai /ŋ̍²³/
    /ɦy²³/
    Suzhou /ɦy¹³/
    /ŋ¹³/
    Hangzhou /ɦz̩ʷ²¹³/
    Wenzhou /ŋøy³¹/
    Hui Shexian /ny⁴⁴/
    Tunxi /ȵy⁴⁴/
    Xiang Changsha /y¹³/
    Xiangtan /y¹²/
    Gan Nanchang /ȵie⁴⁵/
    Hakka Meixian /n̩¹¹/
    Taoyuan /ŋ̍¹¹/
    Cantonese Guangzhou /jy²¹/
    Nanning /y²¹/
    Hong Kong /jy²¹/
    Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /gu³⁵/
    /hi³⁵/
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /ŋy⁵³/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /ŋy³³/
    Shantou (Min Nan) /hɯ⁵⁵/
    Haikou (Min Nan) /zi³¹/
    /hu³¹/

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (31)
    Final () (22)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /ŋɨʌ/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /ŋiɔ/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /ŋiɔ/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /ŋɨə̆/
    Li
    Rong
    /ŋiɔ/
    Wang
    Li
    /ŋĭo/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /ŋi̯wo/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ ngjo ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*[r.ŋ]a/
    English fish (n.)

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 15939
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*ŋa/

    Definitions[edit]

    1. fish (Classifier: m c;  m h mn)
    2. Alternative form of ().
    3. Alternative form of (OC *ŋaː).
    4. A surname​.

    Compounds[edit]

    Descendants[edit]

    Sino-Xenic ():
    • Japanese:  (ぎょ) (gyo)
    • Korean: (, eo)
    • Vietnamese: ngư ()

    Others:


    Japanese[edit]

    Japanese Wikipedia has an article on:
    Wikipedia ja

    Kanji[edit]

    (grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    1. fish

    Readings[edit]

    Compounds[edit]

    Etymology 1[edit]

    (uo, io, o, sakana): fish
    Kanji in this term
    うお
    Grade: 2
    kun’yomi

    From Old Japanese.[1]

    The pronunciation shifted from /uwo/ to /uo/.

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana うお, rōmaji uo, historical hiragana うを)

    1. fish
    Derived terms[edit]

    Etymology 2[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    いお
    Grade: 2
    kun’yomi

    Alteration of older uo, appearing from roughly the Heian period. Still used in modern Japanese some dialects.[1]

    The pronunciation shifted from /uwo/ to /iwo/ to /io/.

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana いお, rōmaji io, historical hiragana いを)

    1. fish

    Etymology 3[edit]

    Kanji in this term

    Grade: 2
    kun’yomi

    Shortening of uo, appearing only in compounds.[1]

    The pronunciation shifted from /uwo/ to /wo/ to /o/.

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana , rōmaji o, historical hiragana )

    1. fish
    Derived terms[edit]

    Etymology 4[edit]

    (na): fish as a side dish
    Kanji in this term

    Grade: 2
    kun’yomi

    From Old Japanese. From (na, a side dish), with derivative meanings spelled variously in kanji in modern Japanese as (for meat or fish), (for vegetables), (for fish).[1]

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana , rōmaji na)

    1. fish, especially as food
      • c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 5, poem 869)
        多良志比賣 可尾能美許等能 都良須等 美多々志世利斯 伊志遠多礼美吉
        足姫 神の命の 釣らすと み立たしせりし 石を誰れ見き
        たらしひめ かみのみことの つらすと みたたしせりし いしをたれみき
        tarashi hime kami no mikoto no na tsurasu to mi-tatashi serishi ishi wo tare miki
        who saw the rock that rose up against us as we tried to catch the fish belonging to the empress?
      • c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 2, poem 131)
        滷者無鞆 鯨取 海邊乎指而 和多豆乃 荒礒乃上尓 香青生 玉藻息津藻 朝羽振 風社依米
        潟はなくとも 鯨魚取り 海辺を指して 柔田津の 荒礒の上に か青なる 玉藻沖つ藻 朝羽振る 風こそ寄せめ
        かたはなくとも いさとり うみへをさして にきたづの ありそのうへに かあをなる たまもおきつも あさはふる かぜこそよせめ
        kata wa naku to mo isana tori umihe wo sashite Nikitadzu no ariso no uhe ni kaawo naru tamamo oki tsu mo asa ni furu kaze koso yoseme
        Even though there is no inlet, the wind that blows in the morning gathers green seaweed pearls and offshore seaweed onto the rocky beaches of Nikitazu along the big-fish-hunting [metaphor for "sea"] shore...
    Derived terms[edit]

    Etymology 5[edit]

    , (sakana): a side dish served with alcoholic beverages
    Kanji in this term
    さかな
    Grade: 2
    kun’yomi

    Compound of Old Japanese elements (saka, sake, rice wine) +‎ (na, side dish, see also na above).[1] Likely source of Okinawan sakana.

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Alternative forms[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana さかな, rōmaji sakana)

    1. fish
       (にわ) () ()しい (さかな) ()べた。
      Niwa de oishii sakana o tabeta.
      I ate a delicious fish in the garden.
      • 2000 January 27, “レインボー・フィッシュ [Rainbow Fish]”, in Vol.7 (in Japanese), Konami:
         ()にも (めずら)しい (なな) (いろ) (さかな) (つか)まえるのはかなり (むずか)しい。
        Yonimo mezurashii nanairo no sakana. Tsukamaeru no wa kanari muzukashii.
        An extremely rare seven-colored fish. It is quite difficult to catch.
      • 2011 May 14, “はんぎょじゅう・フィッシャービースト [Semi-Ichthyobestia Fisherbeast]”, in Beginner's Edition 1 (in Japanese), Konami:
         (りく)では (けもの)のように、 (うみ)では (さかな)のように () (ばや) (こう) (げき)する。
        Riku de wa kemono no yō ni, umi de wa sakana no yō ni subayaku kōgeki suru.
        Like a beast on land, like a fish in the sea, he attacks swiftly.
    2. a side dish served with alcoholic beverages: not necessarily fish, may be a vegetable or other meat
    3. (archaic) entertainment at a drinking party
    Usage notes[edit]

    This is now the most common general word for fish in modern standard Japanese. The side dish sense is more commonly spelled .

    Derived terms[edit]

    Etymology 6[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    ぎょ
    Grade: 2
    on’yomi

    From Middle Chinese (/ŋiɔ/).

    Used in compounds.

    Affix[edit]

    (hiragana ぎょ, rōmaji gyo)

    1. fish
    Derived terms[edit]

    References[edit]

    1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
    2. 2.0 2.1 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
    3. 3.0 3.1 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN

    Korean[edit]

    Hanja[edit]

    (eumhun 고기 (gogi eo))

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    Compounds[edit]


    Mulam[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (məm6)

    1. fish

    Okinawan[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    Readings[edit]

    Etymology 1[edit]

    /uwo//iwo//io//iu/

    Cognate with Old Japanese (uwo). Compare modern dialectal mainland Japanese (io), first appearing in print and becoming common from the Heian period, but likely extant earlier.

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana いう, romaji iu)

    1. fish

    Etymology 2[edit]

    /iu//iju/

    Sound shift from iu.

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana いゆ, romaji iyu)

    1. fish
    Derived terms[edit]

    Old Japanese[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (na) (kana )

    1. fish
      • c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 2, poem 131), text here:
        滷者無鞆 鯨取 海邊乎指而 和多豆乃 荒礒乃上尓 香青生 玉藻息津藻 朝羽振 風社依米
        潟はなくとも 鯨取り 海辺を指して 柔田津の 荒礒の上に か青なる 玉藻沖つ藻 朝羽振る 風こそ寄せめ
        かたはなくとも いさとり うみへをさして にきたづの ありそのうへに かあをなる たまもおきつも あさはふる かぜこそよせめ
        kata wa naku to mo isana tori umipe wo sashite Nikitadu no ariso no upe ni kaawo naru tamamo oki tsu mo asa ni furu kaze koso yoseme
        Even though there is no inlet, the wind that blows in the morning gathers green seaweed pearls and offshore seaweed onto the rocky beaches of Nikitazu along the big-fish-hunting [metaphor for “ocean”] shore...

    Descendants[edit]

    • Japanese: (na)

    Vietnamese[edit]

    Han character[edit]

    (ngư, ngơ, ngớ, ngừ)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    Yonaguni[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    (hiragana いゆ, romaji iyu)

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana いゆ, romaji iyu)

    1. fish
    Derived terms[edit]

    Yoron[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    (hiragana っゆー, romaji 'yū)

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana っゆー, romaji 'yū)

    1. fish