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U+9B5A, 魚
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-9B5A

[U+9B59]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+9B5B]
U+2FC2, ⿂
KANGXI RADICAL FISH

[U+2FC1]
Kangxi Radicals
[U+2FC3]

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
11 strokes
Stroke order (Japan)
11 strokes
Stroke order

Han character[edit]

(Kangxi radical 195, +0, 11 strokes, cangjie input 弓田火 (NWF), four-corner 27336, composition )

  1. Kangxi radical #195, .

Derived characters[edit]

Related characters[edit]

References[edit]

  • Kangxi Dictionary: page 1465, character 1
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 45956
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1998, character 1
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 7, page 4674, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+9B5A

Chinese[edit]

trad.
simp.
alternative forms 𤉯
𤋳
𩵋
𮫬
Wikipedia has articles on:

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts

Pictogram (象形) – a fish.

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *s-ŋja. Cognate with (OC *ŋa, “to fish”).

Pronunciation[edit]


Note: ngui3-4* - standalone word for "fish".
Note:
  • hî/hû/hîr - vernacular;
  • gû/gîr/gî - literary.
Note:
  • he5 - Chaozhou, Shantou, Chenghai, Jieyang;
  • hu5 - Chaoyang, Puning, Huilai.
    • (Leizhou)
      • Leizhou Pinyin: hu5 / yi5
      • Sinological IPA: /hu²²/, /zi²²/
Note:
  • hu5 - vernacular;
  • yi5 - literary.
Note:
  • (Shanghainese) 6ng, (Suzhounese) 2ng - colloquial;
  • (Shanghainese) 6yu, (Suzhounese) 2yu - literary.

  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /y³⁵/
Harbin /y²⁴/
Tianjin /y⁴⁵/
Jinan /y⁴²/
Qingdao /y⁴²/
Zhengzhou /y⁴²/
Xi'an /y²⁴/
Xining /y²⁴/
Yinchuan /y⁵³/
Lanzhou /y⁵³/
Ürümqi /y⁵¹/
Wuhan /y²¹³/
Chengdu /y³¹/
Guiyang /i²¹/
Kunming /i³¹/
Nanjing /y²⁴/
Hefei /zz̩ʷ⁵⁵/
Jin Taiyuan /y¹¹/
Pingyao /ȵy¹³/
Hohhot /y³¹/
Wu Shanghai /ŋ̍²³/
/ɦy²³/
Suzhou /ɦy¹³/
/ŋ¹³/
Hangzhou /ɦz̩ʷ²¹³/
Wenzhou /ŋøy³¹/
Hui Shexian /ny⁴⁴/
Tunxi /ȵy⁴⁴/
Xiang Changsha /y¹³/
Xiangtan /y¹²/
Gan Nanchang /ȵie⁴⁵/
Hakka Meixian /n̩¹¹/
Taoyuan /ŋ̍¹¹/
Cantonese Guangzhou /jy²¹/
Nanning /y²¹/
Hong Kong /jy²¹/
Min Xiamen (Hokkien) /gu³⁵/
/hi³⁵/
Fuzhou (Eastern Min) /ŋy⁵³/
Jian'ou (Northern Min) /ŋy³³/
Shantou (Teochew) /hɯ⁵⁵/
Haikou (Hainanese) /zi³¹/
/hu³¹/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (31)
Final () (22)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Baxter ngjo
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ŋɨʌ/
Pan
Wuyun
/ŋiɔ/
Shao
Rongfen
/ŋiɔ/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ŋɨə̆/
Li
Rong
/ŋiɔ/
Wang
Li
/ŋĭo/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ŋi̯wo/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
jyu4
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle
Chinese
‹ ngjo ›
Old
Chinese
/*[r.ŋ]a/
English fish (n.)

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 15939
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*ŋa/

Definitions[edit]

  1. fish (Classifier: m c;  m h mn)
  2. fish (as a food)
  3. () (telegraphy) the sixth day of a month
  4. Alternative form of ()
  5. Alternative form of (OC *ŋaː).
  6. a surname

Synonyms[edit]

Compounds[edit]

Descendants[edit]

Sino-Xenic ():
  • Japanese: (ぎょ) (gyo)
  • Korean: 어(魚) (eo)
  • Vietnamese: ngư ()

References[edit]

Japanese[edit]

Japanese Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia ja

Kanji[edit]

(grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

Readings[edit]

Compounds[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

(sakana): a fish used as a side dish
Kanji in this term
さかな
Grade: 2
kun’yomi
Alternative spelling

Cognate with (sakana, side dish of meat or vegetables usually served with alcoholic beverages), itself a compound of Old Japanese-derived elements (saka, bound apophonic form of sake2, “alcoholic beverage, especially sake) +‎ , , (na, generic term for a side dish, especially vegetables, fish, or other meat).[1]

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

(さかな) (sakana

  1. a fish, especially when used as food
    (にわ)()()しい(さかな)()べた。
    Niwa de oishii sakana o tabeta.
    I ate a delicious fish in the garden.
    • 2000 January 27, “レインボー・フィッシュ [Rainbow Fish]”, in Vol.7, Konami:
      ()にも(めずら)しい(なな)(いろ)(さかな)(つか)まえるのはかなり(むずか)しい。
      Yonimo mezurashii nanairo no sakana. Tsukamaeru no wa kanari muzukashii.
      An extremely rare seven-colored fish. It is quite difficult to catch.
    • 2011 May 14, “(はん)(ぎょ)(じゅう)・フィッシャービースト [Semi-Ichthyobestia Fisherbeast]”, in Beginner's Edition 1, Konami:
      (りく)では(けもの)のように、(うみ)では(さかな)のように()(ばや)(こう)(げき)する。
      Riku de wa kemono no yō ni, umi de wa sakana no yō ni subayaku kōgeki suru.
      Like a beast on land, like a fish in the sea, he attacks swiftly.
  2. a side dish, specifically referring to fish
    Synonym: お菜 (okazu)
Usage notes[edit]
  • This is now the most common general word for fish in modern standard Japanese.
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

(uo): a fish
Kanji in this term
うお
Grade: 2
kun’yomi

/uwo//uo/

From Old Japanese.[4][5]

Ultimately from Proto-Japonic *uwo.

Pronunciation[edit]

Dialectal data

Modern dialectal data

Note: The information are extracted per se, in a broad IPA transcription by the author. There may be inaccuracies in the data. For Hachijō and Ryukyuan data, see their corresponding entries.

/ɯ̈/ is a described as a "central vowel", but the precise transcription is unclear.

Data source (unless missing): Hirayama, Teruo (平山 照男), Ōshima Ichirō (大島 一郎), Ōno Masao (大野 眞男), Kuno Makoto (久野 眞), Kuno Mariko (久野 マリ子), Sugimura Takao (杉村 孝夫) (1992-1994) 現代日本語方言大辞典 [Dictionary of Japanese Dialects], Tokyo: Meiji Shoin (明治書院)


Other dialectal data

Kagoshima (1987) iu, Gifu (Hida) iuo, Toyama (1959), Fukui, Fukui (Ōban), Minami-Ise, Kishū, Wakayama, Tottori, Shimane, Hiroshima, Tokushima, Tosa, Shimabara (1953), Ōita, Ōsumi, Kagoshima (1987) io, Fukushima, Saitama (1989), Izu Ōshima, Hachijō, Shima, Kagoshima (1987) iyo, Sanuki, Setouchi, Tsushima, Kumamoto (1942), Kagoshima (1987) iwo, Sanuki ugo, Ishikawa, Tottori eo, Fukushima oyo, Fukui (Ōban), Shizuoka, Shima, Minami Ise, Yamato, Wakayama, Tottori, Shimane, Sanuki, Iyo yuo, Shizuoka yuō, Akita, Izu Ōshima, Hachijō yo, Yamgata yoi, Saitama, Tokyo, Fukui, Shizuoka, Tottori, Shimane , Iwate yoko.[5]


Noun[edit]

(うお) (uoうを (wo)?

  1. a fish
Derived terms[edit]
Idioms[edit]
Proverbs[edit]

Etymology 3[edit]

Kanji in this term
いお
Grade: 2
irregular

/uwo//iwo//io/

Alteration of older uo, appearing from roughly the Heian period. Alternatively this might be the usage of an apophonic form *iwo; compare Proto-Ryukyuan *iwo.

Still used today in some dialects.[7]

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

(いお) (ioいを (iwo)?

  1. (archaic or dialectal, Kagoshima) a fish
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 4[edit]

Kanji in this term
ぎょ
Grade: 2
kan’on

From Middle Chinese (MC ngjo).

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

(ぎょ) (gyo

  1. a fish
  2. Short for 魚鱗 (gyorin): fish scales

Affix[edit]

(ぎょ) (gyo

  1. fish
  2. fishlike
Derived terms[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Shōgaku Tosho (1988) 国語大辞典(新装版) [Unabridged Dictionary of Japanese (Revised Edition)] (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan, →ISBN
  2. 2.0 2.1 Matsumura, Akira, editor (2006), 大辞林 [Daijirin] (in Japanese), Third edition, Tokyo: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  3. 3.0 3.1 NHK Broadcasting Culture Research Institute, editor (1998), NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 [NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary] (in Japanese), Tokyo: NHK Publishing, Inc., →ISBN
  4. ^ Omodaka, Hisataka (1967) 時代別国語大辞典 上代編 [The dictionary of historical Japanese: Old Japanese] (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN, page 139
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 うお[うを] 【魚】”, in 日本国語大辞典 (Nihon Kokugo Daijiten, Nihon Kokugo Daijiten) Paid subscription required[1] (in Japanese), 2nd edition, Tōkyō: Shogakukan, 2000, released online 2007, →ISBN, concise edition entry available here (Note: Dialectal meanings, etymological theories, pronunciation including modern, dialectal, and historical information, Jōdai Tokushu Kanazukai, historical dictionaries containing this word, and the kanji spellings in those dictionaries have been omitted.)
  6. 6.0 6.1 Kindaichi, Kyōsuke et al., editors (1997), 新明解国語辞典 [Shin Meikai Kokugo Jiten] (in Japanese), Fifth edition, Tokyo: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  7. ^ いお[いを] 【魚】”, in 日本国語大辞典 (Nihon Kokugo Daijiten, Nihon Kokugo Daijiten) Paid subscription required[2] (in Japanese), 2nd edition, Tōkyō: Shogakukan, 2000, released online 2007, →ISBN, concise edition entry available here (Note: Dialectal meanings, etymological theories, pronunciation including modern, dialectal, and historical information, Jōdai Tokushu Kanazukai, historical dictionaries containing this word, and the kanji spellings in those dictionaries have been omitted.)

Korean[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Middle Chinese (MC ngjo).

Historical Readings
Dongguk Jeongun Reading
Dongguk Jeongun, 1448 ᅌᅥᆼ (Yale: ngè)
Middle Korean
Text Eumhun
Gloss (hun) Reading
Hunmong Jahoe, 1527[4] 고기〮 (Yale: kwòkí) (Yale: è)

Pronunciation[edit]

Hanja[edit]

Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

Wikisource

(eumhun 물고기 (mulgogi eo))

  1. Hanja form? of (fish). [affix]

Compounds[edit]

References[edit]

  • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [5]

Okinawan[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

Readings[edit]

Compounds[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

/ʔiu//ʔiːu//ʔiju/

Shift from iu below.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

(いゆ) (iyu

  1. a fish
    (いゆ)(とぅ)いが()ちゅん。
    Iyu tuiga ichun.
    I will go catch a fish.
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

From Proto-Ryukyuan *iwo, from Proto-Japonic *iwo, apophonic form of *uwo. Cognate with Old Japanese (uwo).

Compare modern dialectal mainland Japanese (io), first appearing in print and becoming common from the Heian period, but likely extant earlier.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

(いう) (iu

  1. a fish

References[edit]

Old Japanese[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Noun[edit]

(uwo) (kana うを)

  1. a fish
Derived terms[edit]
Descendants[edit]
  • Japanese: (uo, io)

Etymology 2[edit]

Cognate with (na, side dish),[1][2][3] by extension that can refer to any kind of meat.

Noun[edit]

(na) (kana )

  1. a fish, especially when used as food
    • , text here
      多良志比賣可尾能美許等能都良須等美多多志世利斯 伊志遠多礼美吉
      tarasi pi1me1 kami2 no2 mi-ko2to2 no2 na turasu to2 mi1-tatasi serisi isi wo tare mi1ki1
      Who saw the rock that rose up against us as we tried to catch the fish [or “catching sweetfishes”] belonging to the empress?
Derived terms[edit]
Descendants[edit]
  • Japanese: (sakana)

References[edit]

  1. ^ Shōgaku Tosho (1988) 国語大辞典(新装版) [Unabridged Dictionary of Japanese (Revised Edition)] (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan, →ISBN
  2. ^ Matsumura, Akira (1995) 大辞泉 [Daijisen] (in Japanese), First edition, Tokyo: Shogakukan, →ISBN
  3. ^ Matsumura, Akira, editor (2006), 大辞林 [Daijirin] (in Japanese), Third edition, Tokyo: Sanseidō, →ISBN

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

: Hán Việt readings: ngư ((ngữ)()(thiết))[1][2][3]
: Nôm readings: ngơ[1][2][3][4], ngư[1][2][3], ngớ[1][4], ngừ[3][4]

  1. chữ Hán form of ngư (fish).

Compounds[edit]

References[edit]

Yonaguni[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

Readings[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

(いゆ) (iyu

  1. fish

Derived terms[edit]

Yoron[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

Readings[edit]

Noun[edit]

(っゆー) (yyū

  1. fish