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See also: and ±

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
土-order.gif

Etymology[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Bamboo and silk script Large seal script Small seal script
土-oracle.svg 土-bronze.svg 土-silk.svg 土-bigseal.svg 土-seal.svg

Pictogram (象形): a lump of clay on a potter’s wheel.

Han character[edit]

(radical 32 +0, 3 strokes, cangjie input 土 (G), four-corner 40100)

  1. soil, earth
  2. items made of earth
  3. one of the five basic elements
  4. peasant

Derived characters[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 223, character 1
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 4867
  • Dae Jaweon: page 453, character 23
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 1, page 415, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+571F

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.

Pronunciation[edit]

Dialectal pronunciations ()
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /tʰu²¹⁴/
Harbin /tʰu²¹³/
Tianjin /tʰu¹³/
Jinan /tʰu⁵⁵/
Qingdao /tʰu⁵⁵/
Zhengzhou /tʰu⁵³/
Xi'an /tʰu⁵³/
Xining /tʰv̩⁵³/
Yinchuan /tʰu⁵³/
Lanzhou /tʰu⁴⁴²/
Ürümqi /tʰu⁵¹/
Wuhan /tʰəu⁴²/
Chengdu /tʰu⁵³/
Guiyang /tʰu⁴²/
Kunming /tʰu⁵³/
Nanjing /tʰu²¹²/
Hefei /tʰu²⁴/
Jin Taiyuan /tʰu⁵³/
Pingyao /tʰu⁵³/
Hohhot /tʰu⁵³/
Wu Shanghai /tʰu³⁵/
Suzhou /tʰəu⁵¹/
Hangzhou /tʰu⁵³/
Wenzhou /tʰøy³⁵/
Hui Shexian /tʰu³⁵/
Tunxi /tʰəu³¹/
Xiang Changsha /tʰəu⁴¹/
Xiangtan /tʰəɯ⁴²/
Gan Nanchang /tʰu²¹³/
Hakka Meixian /tʰu³¹/
Taoyuan /tʰu³¹/
Cantonese Guangzhou /tʰou³⁵/
Nanning /tʰu³⁵/
Hong Kong /tʰou³⁵/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /tʰɔ⁵³/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /tʰu³²/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /tʰu²¹/
Shantou (Min Nan) /tʰou⁵³/
Haikou (Min Nan) /hɔu³¹/ 训途
/hɔu²¹³/ ~产
Middle Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Character (), Pronunciation 1/2

Initial: (6)
Final:
Division: I

Openness: Open
Tone: Rising (X)

Fanqie:
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Bernard
Karlgren
Li
Rong
Pan
Wuyun
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Wang
Li
Shao
Rongfen
/tʰuoX/ /tʰuoX/ /tʰoX/ /tʰuoX/ /tʰɔX/ /tʰuX/ /tʰoX/
Character (), Pronunciation 2/2

Initial: (7)
Final:
Division: I

Openness: Open
Tone: Rising (X)

Fanqie:
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Bernard
Karlgren
Li
Rong
Pan
Wuyun
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Wang
Li
Shao
Rongfen
/duoX/ /dʱuoX/ /doX/ /duoX/ /dɔX/ /duX/ /doX/
Old Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character Modern Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle Chinese Old Chinese English
‹ thuX › /*tʰˤaʔ/ earth

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

  • Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
  • Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
  • Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
  • Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;
  • Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character No. Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
Corresponding
MC rime
Old Chinese Notes
12499 0 /*l̥ʰaːʔ/
12503 0 /*l'aːʔ/

Noun[edit]

  1. earth, soil
    這兒 [MSC, trad.]
    这儿 [MSC, simp.]
    Zhèr de gòu féi de. [Pinyin]
    The soil here is quite fertile.
  2. clay
  3. crude opium

Adjective[edit]

  1. local, native, indigenous
    土著 (tǔzhù, “aboriginal”)
  2. rustic, unsophisticated

Proper noun[edit]

  1. A surname​.
  2. the Tujia ethnic group (土家族)
Compounds[edit]

References[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(grade 1 “Kyōiku” kanji)

Readings[edit]

Compounds[edit]

Kanji in this term
つち
Grade: 1
kun'yomi

Etymology[edit]

From Old Japanese.[1][2]

Pronunciation[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Noun[edit]

‎(hiragana つち, romaji tsuchi)

  1. earth; soil; mud
  2. the ground

Derived terms[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
  2. 2.0 2.1 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, ISBN 4-385-13905-9
  3. ^ 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, ISBN 978-4-14-011112-3

Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

‎(to, du)
Eumhun:

  • Sound (hangeul): ,  (revised: to, du, McCune-Reischauer: t'o, tu, Yale: tho, twu)
  • Name (hangeul): , 뿌리 (revised: heulk, ppuri, McCune-Reischauer: hŭk, ppuri, Yale: hulk, ppuli)
  • Compounds
  1. This entry needs a definition. Please add one, then remove {{defn}}.

Noun[edit]

‎(to) ‎(hangeul )

  1. earth
  2. (As an abbreviation) Saturday

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(thổ, thuận)

  1. earth, land
  2. soil
  3. A name
  4. (As an abbreviation) arrogance