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See also: , , 𡈽, and ±
U+571F, 土
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-571F

[U+571E]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+5720]

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
3 strokes
Stroke order
土-order.gif

Han character[edit]

(radical 32, +0, 3 strokes, cangjie input 土 (G), four-corner 40100, composition)

  1. Kangxi radical #32, .

Derived characters[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 223, character 1
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 4867
  • Dae Jaweon: page 453, character 23
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 1, page 415, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+571F

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.
alternative forms

𡈽

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Spring and Autumn Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Bronze inscriptions Chu Slip and silk script Qin slip script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
土-oracle.svg 土-bronze.svg 土-bronze-spring.svg 土-silk.svg 土-slip.svg 土-seal.svg 土-bigseal.svg

Pictogram (象形): a lump of clay on a potter’s wheel.

Etymology 1[edit]

There is no obvious cognate and etymology, unless it may be related to Proto-Monic *tiiʔ ("soil; ground consisting of earth"), Semnam tɛʔ (soil; earth). However, this would require the assumption of a shift from front vowel to Old Chinese *a (Schuessler, 2007).

Probably related to (OC *ɦljaːʔ, “god of soil; altar to god of soil”).

Pronunciation[edit]


Note: dou6 - “ground, dust”.

  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /tʰu²¹⁴/
Harbin /tʰu²¹³/
Tianjin /tʰu¹³/
Jinan /tʰu⁵⁵/
Qingdao /tʰu⁵⁵/
Zhengzhou /tʰu⁵³/
Xi'an /tʰu⁵³/
Xining /tʰv̩⁵³/
Yinchuan /tʰu⁵³/
Lanzhou /tʰu⁴⁴²/
Ürümqi /tʰu⁵¹/
Wuhan /tʰəu⁴²/
Chengdu /tʰu⁵³/
Guiyang /tʰu⁴²/
Kunming /tʰu⁵³/
Nanjing /tʰu²¹²/
Hefei /tʰu²⁴/
Jin Taiyuan /tʰu⁵³/
Pingyao /tʰu⁵³/
Hohhot /tʰu⁵³/
Wu Shanghai /tʰu³⁵/
Suzhou /tʰəu⁵¹/
Hangzhou /tʰu⁵³/
Wenzhou /tʰøy³⁵/
Hui Shexian /tʰu³⁵/
Tunxi /tʰəu³¹/
Xiang Changsha /tʰəu⁴¹/
Xiangtan /tʰəɯ⁴²/
Gan Nanchang /tʰu²¹³/
Hakka Meixian /tʰu³¹/
Taoyuan /tʰu³¹/
Cantonese Guangzhou /tʰou³⁵/
Nanning /tʰu³⁵/
Hong Kong /tʰou³⁵/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /tʰɔ⁵³/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /tʰu³²/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /tʰu²¹/
Shantou (Min Nan) /tʰou⁵³/
Haikou (Min Nan) /hɔu³¹/ 訓途
/hɔu²¹³/ ~產

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/2
Initial () (6)
Final () (23)
Tone (調) Rising (X)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () I
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/tʰuoX/
Pan
Wuyun
/tʰuoX/
Shao
Rongfen
/tʰoX/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/tʰɔX/
Li
Rong
/tʰoX/
Wang
Li
/tʰuX/
Bernard
Karlgren
/tʰuoX/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle
Chinese
‹ thuX ›
Old
Chinese
/*tʰˁaʔ/
English earth

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/2
No. 12499
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*l̥ʰaːʔ/

Definitions[edit]

  1. earth; soil
    這兒 / 这儿  ―  Zhèr de gòu féi de.  ―  The soil here is quite fertile.
  2. clay
  3. crude opium
  4. dust
  5. local; native; indigenous
      ―  zhù  ―  aboriginal
  6. rustic; unsophisticated; uncouth; vulgar; tasteless; uncultured
    覺得東北話實在 [MSC, trad.]
    觉得东北话实在 [MSC, simp.]
    Wǒ juéde dōngběihuà shízài tài le. [Pinyin]
    I think that Northeastern Mandarin is too rustic.
  7. the Tujia ethnic group (土家族 (Tǔjiāzú))
  8. the Tu ethnic group; Monguor people; White Mongol (土族 (tǔzú))
  9. Short for 土耳其 (Tǔ'ěrqí, “Turkey”).
  10. A surname​.

Compounds[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]



Rime
Character
Reading # 2/2
Initial () (7)
Final () (23)
Tone (調) Rising (X)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () I
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/duoX/
Pan
Wuyun
/duoX/
Shao
Rongfen
/doX/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/dɔX/
Li
Rong
/doX/
Wang
Li
/duX/
Bernard
Karlgren
/dʱuoX/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 2/2
No. 12503
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*l'aːʔ/

Definitions[edit]

  1. Alternative form of (, “root”).
  2. An ancient river

Etymology 3[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]


Definitions[edit]

  1. Only used in 土苴 (chǎzhǎ).

Etymology 4[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]


Definitions[edit]

  1. Only used in 土門土门 (Túmén).

Etymology 5[edit]

For pronunciation and definitions of – see (“unmarried male; bachelor; man; etc.”).
(This character, , is a variant form of .)

References[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(grade 1 “Kyōiku” kanji)

Readings[edit]

Compounds[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Kanji in this term
つち
Grade: 1
kun’yomi
Alternative spelling

From Old Japanese.[1][2]

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

(つち) (tsuchi

  1. earth, soil, mud
  2. the ground
Derived terms[edit]
Idioms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Kanji in this term

Grade: 1
kan’on

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Proper noun[edit]

() (To

  1. Short for 土耳古 (Toruko): Turkey

Etymology 3[edit]

Kanji in this term

Grade: 1
kan’yōon

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

() (do

  1. Short for 土曜日 (doyōbi): Saturday

References[edit]

  1. ^ 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
  2. 2.0 2.1 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  3. ^ 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN

Korean[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Hanja[edit]

(eumhun (heuk to))

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

Compounds[edit]

Noun[edit]

(to) (hangeul )

  1. earth
  2. (as an abbreviation) Saturday

Etymology 2[edit]

Hanja[edit]

(eumhun 뿌리 (ppuri du))

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

: Hán Việt readings: thổ ((tha)(lỗ)(thiết))[1][2][3]
: Nôm readings: thổ[1][2][4], độ[2], thuở[2]

  1. Hán tự form of thổ (earth; soil; land).

Compounds[edit]

References[edit]