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Translingual[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Pictogram (象形) of a picture of handcuffs.

幸 is used to represent handcuffs in .

Another theory considers it as a picture of two men, one being upside down, thus dead. The surviving one being lucky to be still alive.

References[edit]

  • Richard Sears (accessed 2014-02-22), “幸 etymology”, in Chinese Etymology[1] (in Mandarin/English)

Han character[edit]

(radical 51 +5, 8 strokes, cangjie input 土廿十 (GTJ), four-corner 40401, composition𢆉)

Derived characters[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 341, character 1
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 9176
  • Dae Jaweon: page 649, character 9
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 1, page 434, character 8
  • Unihan data for U+5E78

Chinese[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

simp. and trad.

Pronunciation[edit]



  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /ɕiŋ⁵¹/
Harbin /ɕiŋ⁵³/
Tianjin /ɕiŋ⁵³/
Jinan /ɕiŋ²¹/
Qingdao /ɕiŋ⁴²/
Zhengzhou /ɕiŋ³¹²/
Xi'an /ɕiŋ⁴⁴/
Xining /ɕiə̃²¹³/
Yinchuan /ɕiŋ¹³/
Lanzhou /ɕĩn¹³/
Ürümqi /ɕiŋ²¹³/
Wuhan /ɕin³⁵/
Chengdu /ɕin¹³/
Guiyang /ɕin²¹³/
Kunming /ɕĩ¹/
Nanjing /ɕin⁴⁴/
Hefei /ɕin⁵³/
Jin Taiyuan /ɕiəŋ⁴⁵/
Pingyao /ɕiŋ³⁵/
Hohhot /ɕĩŋ⁵⁵/
Wu Shanghai /ɦiŋ²³/
Suzhou /ɦin³¹/
Hangzhou /ɦin¹³/
Wenzhou /ɦɛ³⁵/
Hui Shexian /ɕiʌ̃²²/
Tunxi /xɛ²⁴/
Xiang Changsha /ɕin⁵⁵/
Xiangtan /ɕin⁵⁵/
Gan Nanchang /ɕin²¹/
Hakka Meixian /hen⁵³/
Taoyuan
Cantonese Guangzhou /hɐŋ²²/
Nanning /hɐŋ²²/
Hong Kong /hɐŋ²²/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /hiŋ²²/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /hɛiŋ²⁴²/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /xaiŋ⁴⁴/
Shantou (Min Nan) /heŋ³⁵/
Haikou (Min Nan) /heŋ³³/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (33)
Final () (117)
Tone (調) Rising (X)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () II
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ɦˠɛŋX/
Pan
Wuyun
/ɦᵚæŋX/
Shao
Rongfen
/ɣɐŋX/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ɦəɨjŋX/
Li
Rong
/ɣɛŋX/
Wang
Li
/ɣæŋX/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ɣæŋX/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
hèng
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
xìng
Middle
Chinese
‹ hɛngX ›
Old
Chinese
/*[ɡ]ˤreŋʔ/
English fortunate

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 13881
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*ɡreːŋʔ/

Noun[edit]

  1. luck
  2. favor, favour

Adjective[edit]

  1. fortunate; lucky

Adverb[edit]

  1. luckily; fortunately

Etymology 2[edit]

For pronunciation and definitions of – see .
(This character, , is the simplified form of .)
Notes:

Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(grade 3 “Kyōiku” kanji)

Readings[edit]

Compounds[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Kanji in this term
こう
Grade: 3
on'yomi

/kau//kɔː//koː/

From Middle Chinese ‎(hɛngX, literally lucky, fortunate, auspicious). The kan'on, so a later borrowing.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

‎(hiragana こう, romaji )

  1. good luck, good fortune; happiness
  2. an appearance by the emperor or a retired emperor
Usage notes[edit]

The good fortune and happiness senses are generally considered as overlapping.

Synonyms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Kanji in this term
しあわせ
Grade: 3
kun'yomi

The 連用形 ‎(ren'yōkei, continuative or stem form) of verb 為合わす, 仕合わす ‎(shiawasu, to put together well; to work together well, lower bigrade, with continuative form ending in -e), itself a compound of Old Japanese verbs ‎(su, to do, to make something be a certain way) + 合わす ‎(awasu, to join together, to fit together).[2][1]

Often spelled 幸せ with the final to indicate the reading.

Pronunciation[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Adjective[edit]

‎(-na inflection, hiragana しあわせ, romaji shiawase, historical hiragana しあはせ)

  1. happy
  2. fortunate, lucky
Conjugation[edit]

Noun[edit]

‎(hiragana しあわせ, romaji shiawase, historical hiragana しあはせ)

  1. a moment when circumstances come together: fate, opportunity (used to indicate both good and bad instances)
  2. happiness
  3. good fortune, good luck
  4. circumstances, the flow of events
Synonyms[edit]

Etymology 3[edit]

Kanji in this term
さいわい
Grade: 3
kun'yomi

/sakipapi//sakiɸaɸi//sakiwahi//sakiwai//saiwai/

Derived from sakiwai below.[2][1]

More often spelled as 幸い with the final to indicate the reading.

Pronunciation[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Adjective[edit]

‎(-na inflection, hiragana さいわい, romaji saiwai, historical hiragana さいはひ)

  1. very fortunate and happy, especially as bestowed by gods, spirits, buddhas, or other entities
  2. favorable, ideal (often used in polite constructions)
    返事 (へんじ)をいただければ (さいわ)です。
    Ohenji o itadakereba saiwai desu.
    It would be favorable if I could have your reply. → I would greatly appreciate your reply.
Conjugation[edit]

Adverb[edit]

‎(hiragana さいわい, romaji saiwai, historical hiragana さいはひ)

  1. fortunately, luckily, happily
     (さいわい)怪我 (けが)はなかった。
    saiwai, kega wa nakatta.
    Luckily, no one was hurt.
Usage notes[edit]

When used as an adverb without a particle, this term usually comes at the start of the sentence. It also appears used with advervial particles ‎(ni) and ‎(to), or, perhaps more commonly, in an adverbial construction as 幸なことに.

Noun[edit]

‎(hiragana さいわい, romaji saiwai, historical hiragana さいはひ)

  1. very good fortune and happiness, especially as bestowed by gods, spirits, buddhas, or other entities
  2. an occurrence of good luck or good fortune
  3. (derivation unknown) the tail and back fins of a carp or other fish, as used in cooking
Synonyms[edit]

Etymology 4[edit]

Kanji in this term
さきわい
Grade: 3
kun'yomi

/sakipapi//sakiɸaɸi//sakiwahi//sakiwai/

The 連用形 ‎(ren'yōkei, continuative or stem form) of verb 幸う ‎(sakiwau, to meet with good fortune; to prosper), itself a compound of (saki below, “good fortune, happiness”) + 這う, 延う ‎(hau, to spread out widely).[2]

Pronunciation[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Noun[edit]

‎(hiragana さきわい, romaji sakiwai, historical hiragana さきはひ)

  1. (obsolete) an occurrence of good luck or good fortune
  2. (obsolete) good luck or good fortune itself
Usage notes[edit]

Obsolete in modern Japanese, replaced by saiwai above.

Synonyms[edit]

Etymology 5[edit]

Kanji in this term
さき
Grade: 3
kun'yomi

From Old Japanese.[2] Possibly cognate with ‎(saki, tip, point; future, ahead) from the idea of [favorable] future. Possibly also related to sachi / satsu below.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

‎(hiragana さき, romaji saki)

  1. (obsolete) good luck, good fortune; happiness
    c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 18, poem 4095)
    大夫能 許己呂於毛保由 於保伎美能 美許登佐吉乎 聞者多布刀美
    大夫の 心思ほゆ 大君の 御言のを 聞けば貴み
    ますらをの こころおもほゆ おほきみの みことのさきを きけばたふとみ
    Masurawo no | kokoro omohoyu | Ohokimi no | mikoto no saki wo | kikeba tafutomi
    “Such manliness of spirit is brought to mind. How noble to hear of the happiness / good fortune of the words of the emperor...”
Usage notes[edit]

The good fortune and happiness senses are generally considered as overlapping.

Saki in this sense appears to be obsolete in modern Japanese.

Synonyms[edit]

Etymology 6[edit]

Kanji in this term
さちわい
Grade: 3
kun'yomi

/sat͡ɕipapi//sat͡ɕiɸaɸi//sat͡ɕiwahi//sat͡ɕiwai/

The 連用形 ‎(ren'yōkei, continuative or stem form) of verb 幸う ‎(sachiwau, to meet with good fortune; to prosper), itself a compound of (sachi below, “good fortune, happiness”) + 這う, 延う ‎(hau, to spread out widely).[2]

Pronunciation[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Noun[edit]

‎(hiragana さちわい, romaji sachiwai, historical hiragana さちはひ)

  1. (obsolete, rare) an occurrence of good luck or good fortune
  2. (obsolete, rare) good luck or good fortune itself
Usage notes[edit]

Obsolete in modern Japanese, replaced by saiwai above. In historical Japanese, sachiwai appears to be a rarer variant of sakiwai above.

Synonyms[edit]

Etymology 7[edit]

Kanji in this term
さち
Grade: 3
kun'yomi

From Old Japanese.[2] Possibly cognate with Korean (sal, “arrow”). Possibly also related with saki above.

The kanji may have originally been applied to this word for the source Chinese term's associations with good fortune.

This is the standalone form of satsu below. Possibly derived as the fusion of satsu and Old Japanese emphatic nominalizing particle : */satu i//sati//sat͡ɕi/

Pronunciation[edit]

Adjective[edit]

‎(-na inflection, hiragana さち, romaji sachi)

  1. very fortunate and happy
Conjugation[edit]

Noun[edit]

‎(hiragana さち, romaji sachi)

  1. (archaic) a hunting implement; the spirit of a hunting implement
  2. a bounteous catch (for fishing), amply caught game (for hunting); food (specifically animal protein caught in the wild: fish or game)
  3. good fortune, good luck; happiness

Etymology 8[edit]

Kanji in this term
さつ
Grade: 3
kun'yomi

From Old Japanese.[2] Possibly cognate with Korean (sal, “arrow”). Possibly also related with saki above.

The kanji may have originally been applied to this word for the source Chinese term's associations with good fortune.

This is the bound form of sachi above. This form is only ever used in compounds. Possibly the original form.

Pronunciation[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Prefix[edit]

‎(hiragana さつ, romaji satsu-)

  1. (obsolete) hunting, for hunting
     (さつ) () (さつ) (ゆみ) (さつ) (ひと)
    satsuya, satsuyumi, satsuhito
    a hunting arrow, a hunting bow, a hunter

References[edit]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, ISBN 4-385-13905-9
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan

Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

‎(haeng) (hangeul , revised haeng, McCune-Reischauer haeng)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(hạnh, may)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.