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See also: and
U+72AC, 犬
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-72AC

[U+72AB]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+72AD]
U+2F5D, ⽝
KANGXI RADICAL DOG

[U+2F5C]
Kangxi Radicals
[U+2F5E]

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order

Alternative forms[edit]

  • (when used as a left Chinese radical)

Although the alternative form clearly shows only three strokes, it is still counted as four strokes when using a Chinese dictionary. Compare from (water), from (hand), and from (heart), all of which are 3-stroke forms from 4-stroke characters.

Han character[edit]

(Kangxi radical 94, +0, 4 strokes, cangjie input 戈大 (IK), four-corner 43030, composition )

  1. Kangxi radical #94, .

Derived characters[edit]

References[edit]

  • Kangxi Dictionary: page 705, character 27
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 20234
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1118, character 14
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 2, page 1331, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+72AC

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Bronze inscriptions Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Chu slip and silk script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts

Pictogram (象形) – the side view of a dog.

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *d-kʷəj-n (dog); cognate with Tibetan ཁྱི (khyi, dog), Burmese ခွေး (hkwe:, dog).

This common Sino-Tibetan word has been replaced by (OC *koːʔ) in most topolects except Min Dong, such as Fuzhou kēng. In other topolects, this word is mainly found in compounds and not used alone.

Pronunciation[edit]


Note:
  • kiêng2 - Chaozhou;
  • kiang2 - Shantou.
  • Wu
  • Xiang

    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location
    Mandarin Beijing /t͡ɕʰyan²¹⁴/
    Harbin /t͡ɕʰyan²¹³/
    Tianjin /t͡ɕʰyan¹³/
    Jinan /t͡ɕʰyã⁵⁵/
    Qingdao /t͡ɕʰyã⁵⁵/
    Zhengzhou /t͡ɕʰyan⁵³/
    Xi'an /t͡ɕʰyã⁵³/
    Xining /t͡ɕʰyã⁵³/
    Yinchuan /t͡ɕʰyan⁵³/
    Lanzhou /t͡ɕʰyɛ̃n⁴⁴²/
    Ürümqi /t͡ɕyan⁵¹/
    Wuhan /t͡ɕʰyɛn⁴²/
    Chengdu /t͡ɕʰyan⁵³/
    Guiyang /t͡ɕʰian⁴²/
    Kunming /t͡ɕʰiɛ̃⁵³/
    Nanjing /t͡ɕʰyen²¹²/
    Hefei /t͡ɕʰyĩ²⁴/
    Jin Taiyuan /t͡ɕʰye¹¹/
    Pingyao /t͡ɕʰye̞⁵³/
    Hohhot /t͡ɕʰye⁵³/
    Wu Shanghai /t͡ɕʰyø³⁵/
    Suzhou /t͡ɕʰiø⁵¹/
    Hangzhou /t͡sʰz̩ʷõ⁵³/
    Wenzhou /t͡ɕʰy³⁵/
    Hui Shexian /t͡ɕʰye³⁵/
    Tunxi /t͡ɕʰyɛ³¹/
    Xiang Changsha /t͡ɕʰyẽ⁴¹/
    Xiangtan /t͡ɕʰyẽ⁴²/
    Gan Nanchang /t͡ɕʰyɵn²¹³/
    Hakka Meixian /kʰian³¹/
    Taoyuan /kʰien³¹/
    Cantonese Guangzhou /hyn³⁵/
    Nanning /hyn³⁵/
    Hong Kong /hyn³⁵/
    Min Xiamen (Hokkien) /kʰian⁵³/
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /kʰɛiŋ³²/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /kʰyiŋ²¹/
    Shantou (Min Nan) /kʰuaŋ⁵³/
    Haikou (Hainanese) /xin³¹/
    /kau²¹³/ 訓狗

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (29)
    Final () (86)
    Tone (調) Rising (X)
    Openness (開合) Closed
    Division () IV
    Fanqie
    Baxter khwenX
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /kʰwenX/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /kʰʷenX/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /kʰuɛnX/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /kʰwɛnX/
    Li
    Rong
    /kʰuenX/
    Wang
    Li
    /kʰiwenX/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /kʰiwenX/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    quǎn
    Expected
    Cantonese
    Reflex
    hyun2
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    quǎn
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ khwenX ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*[k]ʷʰˁ[e][n]ʔ/
    English dog

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 10736
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    2
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*kʰʷeːnʔ/

    Definitions[edit]

    A dog (a Labrador)

    1. (formal or in compounds or Min Dong, Waxiang, dialectal Wu) dog
        ―  jǐngquǎn  ―  police dog

    Synonyms[edit]

    Compounds[edit]

    Descendants[edit]

    • Bai: *qʰuaŋ²

    References[edit]

    Further reading[edit]

    Japanese[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    (grade 1 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    1. a dog
    2. the dog radical (いぬ)

    Readings[edit]

    Compounds[edit]

    Etymology[edit]

    Japanese Wikipedia has an article on:
    Wikipedia ja
    English Wikipedia has an article on:
    Wikipedia
    (inu): various kinds of dog.
    Kanji in this term
    いぬ
    Grade: 1
    kun’yomi
    Alternative spelling

    From Old Japanese, from Proto-Japonic *enu. Derivation uncertain. Various theories exist, including derivation from ancient verb 往ぬ (inu, to leave, to be gone), from the way a dog will guard the house while the master is away; from a compound of (ie, house, home) + (nu, to sleep, ancient monosyllabic form of modern 寝る neru); from ancient Japanese (enu < wenu, puppy, dog), itself of uncertain derivation; or as a borrowing from some other unknown language.

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (いぬ) or (イヌ) (inu (counter )

    1. dog, canine
      (いぬ)(まい)(にち)(えさ)()げて(くだ)さい。
      Inu ni mainichi esa o agete kudasai.
      Please feed the dog every day.
    2. servant; one who is loyal (like a dog)
      (かい)(ちょう)(いぬ)
      kaichō no inu
      a servant of the president
    3. spy
      (てき)(ぐん)(いぬ)
      tekigun no inu
      a spy of the hostile army

    Usage notes[edit]

    As with many terms that name organisms, this term is often spelled in katakana, especially in biological contexts (where katakana is customary), as イヌ.

    Synonyms[edit]

    Descendants[edit]

    • Yami: ino

    References[edit]

    1. ^ Akira Matsumura, editor (2006) 大辞林 [Daijirin] (in Japanese), Third edition, Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
    2. ^ NHK Broadcasting Culture Research Institute, editor (1998) NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 [NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary] (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK Publishing, →ISBN

    Korean[edit]

    Etymology[edit]

    From Middle Chinese (MC khwenX).

    Historical Readings
    Dongguk Jeongun Reading
    Dongguk Jeongun, 1448 ᄏᆑᆫ〯 (Yale: khyyěn)
    Middle Korean
    Text Eumhun
    Gloss (hun) Reading
    Hunmong Jahoe, 1527[2] 가히〮 (Yale: kàhí) 견〯 (Yale: kyěn)

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Hanja[edit]

    Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

    Wikisource

    (eumhun (gae gyeon))

    1. Hanja form? of (dog). [noun; affix]

    Derived terms[edit]

    References[edit]

    • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [3]

    Miyako[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    (grade 1 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    Etymology[edit]

    Cognate with Japanese (inu).

    Noun[edit]

    (いん) (in

    1. dog

    Northern Amami-Oshima[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    (grade 1 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    Etymology[edit]

    Cognate with Japanese (inu).

    Noun[edit]

    (いん) (in

    1. dog

    Okinawan[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    (grade 1 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    Readings[edit]

    Etymology[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    いん
    Grade: 1
    kun’yomi

    Cognate with Japanese (inu).

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (いん) (in

    1. dog (Canis familiaris); domestic dog

    Compounds[edit]

    References[edit]

    • いん【犬】” in JLect - Japonic Languages and Dialects Database Dictionary, 2019.

    Southern Amami-Oshima[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    (grade 1 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    Etymology[edit]

    Cognate with Japanese (inu).

    Noun[edit]

    (いん) (in

    1. dog

    Vietnamese[edit]

    Han character[edit]

    : Hán Việt readings: khuyển[1][2]
    : Nôm readings: khuyển[1][3][4], chó[2]

    1. Nôm form of chó (dog).

    References[edit]