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Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
犬-order.gif

Alternative forms[edit]

  • (when used as a left Chinese radical)

Although the alternative form clearly shows only three strokes, it is still counted as four strokes when using a Chinese dictionary. Compare from ‎(water), from ‎(hand), and from ‎(heart), all of which are a 3-stroke form from a 4-stroke character.

Etymology[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Bamboo and silk script Large seal script Small seal script
犬-oracle.svg 犬-bronze.svg 犬-silk.svg 犬-bigseal.svg 犬-seal.svg

Pictogram (象形) – the dot is the ear. In the form , a dog that is up on its hind legs.

The character is considered a rather abstract rendition – Confucius is alleged to have said “The ancients must have had very strange-looking dogs” (500 BCE).[1]

Han character[edit]

(radical 94 +0, 4 strokes, cangjie input 戈大 (IK), four-corner 43030, composition)

  1. radical number 94

Usage notes[edit]

犬 is the 94th radical in the Chinese dictionary. Compound characters such as mostly use the alternative form at the left of the character. Most represent something to do with dogs or other animals. A smaller proportion (e. g. ) use the primary form at the right of the character. A few even show both forms: in which means "prison" or "litigation"; "words" () stand between two dogs to keep them from biting each other.

Derived characters[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 705, character 27
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 20234
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1118, character 14
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 2, page 1331, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+72AC

Usage notes[edit]

  1. ^ Richard Sears (accessed 2015-03-20), “Chinese Etymology: Why Study Chinese Etymology”, in (Please provide the title of the work)[1]

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *d-kʷəj-n. This common Sino-Tibetan word has been replaced by (gǒu) in most dialects except a few Min dialects, such as Fuzhou kēng. In other dialects, this word is mainly found in compounds and not used alone.

Pronunciation[edit]


Dialectal pronunciations ()
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /t͡ɕʰyan²¹⁴/
Harbin /t͡ɕʰyan²¹³/
Tianjin /t͡ɕʰyan¹³/
Jinan /t͡ɕʰyã⁵⁵/
Qingdao /t͡ɕʰyã⁵⁵/
Zhengzhou /t͡ɕʰyan⁵³/
Xi'an /t͡ɕʰyã⁵³/
Xining /t͡ɕʰyã⁵³/
Yinchuan /t͡ɕʰyan⁵³/
Lanzhou /t͡ɕʰyɛ̃n⁴⁴²/
Ürümqi /t͡ɕyan⁵¹/
Wuhan /t͡ɕʰyɛn⁴²/
Chengdu /t͡ɕʰyan⁵³/
Guiyang /t͡ɕʰian⁴²/
Kunming /t͡ɕʰiɛ̃⁵³/
Nanjing /t͡ɕʰyen²¹²/
Hefei /t͡ɕʰyĩ²⁴/
Jin Taiyuan /t͡ɕʰye¹¹/
Pingyao /t͡ɕʰye̞⁵³/
Hohhot /t͡ɕʰye⁵³/
Wu Shanghai /t͡ɕʰyø³⁵/
Suzhou /t͡ɕʰiø⁵¹/
Hangzhou /t͡sʰz̩ʷõ⁵³/
Wenzhou /t͡ɕʰy³⁵/
Hui Shexian /t͡ɕʰye³⁵/
Tunxi /t͡ɕʰyɛ³¹/
Xiang Changsha /t͡ɕʰyẽ⁴¹/
Xiangtan /t͡ɕʰyẽ⁴²/
Gan Nanchang /t͡ɕʰyɵn²¹³/
Hakka Meixian /kʰian³¹/
Taoyuan /kʰien³¹/
Cantonese Guangzhou /hyn³⁵/
Nanning /hyn³⁵/
Hong Kong /hyn³⁵/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /kʰian⁵³/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /kʰɛiŋ³²/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /kʰyiŋ²¹/
Shantou (Min Nan) /kʰuaŋ⁵³/
Haikou (Min Nan) /xin³¹/
/kau²¹³/ 訓狗
Middle Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Character (), Pronunciation 1/1

Initial: (29)
Final: (86)
Tone: Rising (X)

Openness: Closed
Division: IV
Fanqie:

Expected Mandarin reflex: quǎn
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Pan
Wuyun
Shao
Rongfen
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Li
Rong
Wang
Li
Bernard
Karlgren
/kʰwenX/ /kʰʷenX/ /kʰuɛnX/ /kʰwɛnX/ /kʰuenX/ /kʰiwenX/ /kʰiwenX/
Old Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character Modern Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle Chinese Old Chinese English
quǎn ‹ khwenX › /*[k]ʷʰˤ[e][n]ʔ/ dog

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

  • Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
  • Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
  • Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
  • Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;
  • Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character No. Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
Corresponding
MC rime
Old Chinese Notes
10736 2 /*kʰʷeːnʔ/

Noun[edit]

A dog (a Labrador)

  1. (archaic, Min Dong, dialectal Wu) dog

Derived terms[edit]

Synonyms[edit]

  • (gǒu) (more common)

Descendants[edit]

Sino-Xenic ():

Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(grade 1 “Kyōiku” kanji)

  1. a dog
  2. the dog radical (いぬ)

Readings[edit]

Compounds[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Japanese Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia ja
Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia
(inu): various kinds of dog.
Kanji in this term
いぬ
Grade: 1
kun'yomi

From Old Japanese. Derivation uncertain. Various theories exist, including derivation from ancient verb 往ぬ ‎(inu, to leave, to be gone), from the way a dog will guard the house while the master is away; from a compound of ‎(ie, house, home) + ‎(nu, to sleep, ancient monosyllabic form of modern 寝る neru); from ancient Japanese ‎(enu, puppy, dog), itself of uncertain derivation; or as a borrowing from some other unknown language.

Pronunciation[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Noun[edit]

‎(counter , hiragana いぬ, katakana イヌ, romaji inu)

  1. dog; canine
     (いぬ)毎日餌 (まいにちえさ) ()げて (くだ)さい。
    Inu ni mainichi esa o agete kudasai.
    Please feed the dog every day.
  2. one who is loyal (like a dog)
  3. a spy

References[edit]

  1. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, ISBN 4-385-13905-9
  2. ^ 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, ISBN 978-4-14-011112-3

Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

‎(gyeon)
Eumhun:

  • Sound (hangeul):  (revised: gyeon, McCune-Reischauer: kyŏn, Yale: kyen)
  • Name (hangeul): ()
  1. dog

Synonyms[edit]

  • ‎(gae) (gae)

Derived terms[edit]


Miyako[edit]

Kanji[edit]

‎(hiragana いん, romaji in)

Etymology[edit]

Cognate with Old Japanese ‎(inu).

Noun[edit]

‎(hiragana いん, romaji in)

  1. dog

Northern Amami-Oshima[edit]

Kanji[edit]

‎(hiragana いん, romaji in)

Etymology[edit]

Cognate with Old Japanese ‎(inu).

Noun[edit]

‎(hiragana いん, romaji in)

  1. dog

Okinawan[edit]

Kanji[edit]

‎(hiragana いん, romaji in)

Etymology[edit]

Cognate with Old Japanese ‎(inu).

Pronunciation[edit]

IPA(key): [ʔiŋ̍]

Noun[edit]

‎(hiragana いん, romaji in)

  1. dog

Compounds[edit]


Southern Amami-Oshima[edit]

Kanji[edit]

‎(hiragana いん, romaji in)

Etymology[edit]

Cognate with Old Japanese ‎(inu).

Noun[edit]

‎(hiragana いん, romaji in)

  1. dog

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(khuyển, chó, dặm)

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