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U+54ED, 哭
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-54ED

[U+54EC]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+54EE]

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
10 strokes

Han character[edit]

(radical 30, +7, 10 strokes, cangjie input 口口戈大 (RRIK), four-corner 66430, composition)

  1. Shuōwén Jiězì radical №25

Descendants[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 190, character 25
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 3658
  • Dae Jaweon: page 410, character 6
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 1, page 629, character 2
  • Unihan data for U+54ED

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.

Glyph origin[edit]

Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*ŋroːɡ
*ŋroːɡ
*ŋ̊ʰoːɡ
*ŋoɡ

Shuowen interprets it to be a phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *ŋ̊ʰoːɡ): semantic  (to speak loudly) + phonetic  (OC *ŋoɡ), simplified to .

Alternatively, it may be an ideogrammic compound (會意):  (to speak loudly) +  (dog) – a dog's bark > cry; weep.

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *kuːk (to weep; to wail); cognate with Mizo kûk (to shriek) (STEDT).

This seems to be an area word; compare Proto-Mon-Khmer *kuk ~ kuuk ~ kuək ~ kək (to call), Proto-Austronesian *-kuk (sound of a sob) (Schuessler, 2007).

Pronunciation[edit]


Note:
  • khàu - vernacular;
  • khok - literary.
  • Wu
  • Xiang

    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location
    Mandarin Beijing /kʰu⁵⁵/
    Harbin /kʰu⁴⁴/
    Tianjin /kʰu²¹/
    Jinan /kʰu²¹³/
    Qingdao /kʰu⁵⁵/
    Zhengzhou /kʰu²⁴/
    Xi'an /kʰu²¹/
    Xining /kʰv̩⁴⁴/
    Yinchuan /kʰu¹³/
    Lanzhou /kʰu¹³/
    Ürümqi /kʰu²¹³/
    Wuhan /kʰu²¹³/
    Chengdu /kʰu³¹/
    Guiyang /kʰu²¹/
    Kunming /kʰu³¹/
    Nanjing /kʰuʔ⁵/
    Hefei /kʰuəʔ⁵/
    Jin Taiyuan /kʰuəʔ²/
    Pingyao /kʰuʌʔ¹³/
    Hohhot /kʰuəʔ⁴³/
    Wu Shanghai /kʰoʔ⁵/
    Suzhou /kʰoʔ⁵/
    Hangzhou /kʰoʔ⁵/
    Wenzhou /kʰu²¹³/
    Hui Shexian /kʰuʔ²¹/
    Tunxi /kʰu⁵/
    Xiang Changsha /kʰu²⁴/
    Xiangtan /kʰu²⁴/
    Gan Nanchang /kʰuʔ⁵/
    Hakka Meixian /kʰuk̚¹/
    Taoyuan /kʰuk̚²²/
    Cantonese Guangzhou /hok̚⁵/
    Nanning /huk̚⁵⁵/
    Hong Kong /huk̚⁵/
    Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /kʰɔk/
    /kʰau¹/
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /kʰouʔ²³/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /kʰu²⁴/
    Shantou (Min Nan) /kʰau²¹³/ 訓讀
    Haikou (Min Nan) /xau³⁵/ 訓號

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (29)
    Final () (3)
    Tone (調) Checked (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () I
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /kʰuk̚/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /kʰuk̚/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /kʰuk̚/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /kʰəwk̚/
    Li
    Rong
    /kʰuk̚/
    Wang
    Li
    /kʰuk̚/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /kʰuk̚/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    ku
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ khuwk ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*[kʰ]ˁok/
    English weep

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 16031
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*ŋ̊ʰoːɡ/
    Notes

    Definitions[edit]

    1. to weep; to cry; to wail

    Synonyms[edit]

    Dialectal synonyms of (“to cry; to weep”) [map]
    Variety Location Words
    Classical Chinese ,
    Formal (Written Standard Chinese) , 哭泣
    Mandarin Beijing
    Taiwan
    Harbin , 哭鼻子 humorous
    Jinan
    Muping
    Luoyang
    Wanrong
    Xi'an
    Xining
    Xuzhou
    Yinchuan , 哭鼻子
    Lanzhou
    Ürümqi
    Wuhan
    Chengdu
    Guiyang
    Yangzhou
    Nanjing , 哭鼻子 humorous
    Hefei
    Cantonese Guangzhou
    Hong Kong
    Hong Kong (San Tin Weitou)
    Hong Kong (Kam Tin Weitou)
    Hong Kong (Ting Kok)
    Hong Kong (Tung Ping Chau)
    Macau
    Panyu
    Huadu (Huashan)
    Conghua
    Zengcheng
    Foshan
    Nanhai (Shatou)
    Shunde
    Sanshui
    Zhongshan (Shiqi)
    Zhuhai (Qianshan)
    Doumen (Shangheng Tanka)
    Doumen
    Jiangmen (Baisha)
    Xinhui
    Taishan
    Kaiping (Chikan)
    Enping (Niujiang)
    Heshan (Yayao)
    Dongguan
    Bao'an (Shajing) ,
    Dapeng
    Yangjiang
    Nanning
    Danzhou
    Kuala Lumpur
    Ho Chi Minh City
    Gan Nanchang ,
    Lichuan
    Pingxiang
    Hakka Meixian , 叫眵, 叫嘴
    Xingning
    Huizhou (Huicheng Bendihua)
    Huidong (Daling)
    Dongguan (Qingxi)
    Shenzhen (Shatoujiao)
    Zhongshan (Wuguishan)
    Zhongshan (Nanlang Heshui)
    Wuhua (Shuizhai)
    Wuhua (Huacheng) , 叫嘴
    Wuhua (Changbu) , 叫嘴
    Wuhua (Mianyang) , 叫嘴
    Heyuan (Bendihua)
    Qujiang 叫嘴
    Lianshan (Xiaosanjiang)
    Liannan
    Conghua (Lütian)
    Jiexi
    Luchuan
    Changting
    Pingyu
    Wuping 叫嘴
    Liancheng
    Ninghua
    Yudu
    Ruijin
    Shicheng
    Shangyou
    Miaoli (N. Sixian) , 叫眵
    Liudui (S. Sixian) , 叫眵
    Hsinchu (Hailu) , 叫眵
    Dongshi (Dabu) , 叫眵
    Hsinchu (Raoping) , 唩眵
    Yunlin (Zhao'an)
    Hong Kong
    Sabah (Longchuan) , 叫嘴
    Senai
    Singkawang
    Huizhou Jixi
    Jin Taiyuan
    Xinzhou
    Min Bei Jian'ou
    Dikou
    Songxi
    Zhenghe
    Zhenqian
    Jianyang
    Wuyishan
    Shibei
    Min Dong Fuzhou , 啼嘛
    Changle
    Fuqing
    Yongtai
    Gutian
    Fu'an
    Ningde
    Shouning
    Zhouning
    Fuding ,
    Matsu , 啼嘛
    Min Nan Xiamen ,
    Quanzhou ,
    Yongchun
    Zhangzhou ,
    Taipei ,
    Kaohsiung ,
    Tainan ,
    Taichung ,
    Hsinchu ,
    Lukang ,
    Sanxia ,
    Yilan ,
    Kinmen
    Magong ,
    Penang
    Philippines (Manila)
    Longyan
    Zhangping
    Datian
    Pingnan
    Chaozhou
    Shantou
    Johor Bahru
    Wenchang
    Haikou
    Leizhou
    Puxian Min Putian
    Xianyou
    Pinghua Nanning
    Shehua Fu'an
    Fuding
    Luoyuan
    Sanming
    Shunchang
    Hua'an
    Guixi
    Cangnan
    Jingning
    Lishui
    Longyou
    Chaozhou
    Fengshun
    Wu Shanghai
    Suzhou
    Wuxi
    Hangzhou
    Wenzhou
    Chongming
    Danyang
    Jinhua
    Ningbo
    Xiang Changsha
    Shuangfeng
    Loudi
    Quanzhou

    Compounds[edit]


    Japanese[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    (uncommon “Hyōgai” kanji)

    1. to cry; to wail

    Readings[edit]

    Compounds[edit]


    Korean[edit]

    Hanja[edit]

    (gok) (hangeul )

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    Vietnamese[edit]

    Han character[edit]

    (khốc, khóc)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.