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U+54ED, 哭
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-54ED

[U+54EC]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+54EE]

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
10 strokes

Han character[edit]

(radical 30, +7, 10 strokes, cangjie input 口口戈大 (RRIK), four-corner 66430, composition)

  1. Shuōwén Jiězì radical №25

Descendants[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 190, character 25
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 3658
  • Dae Jaweon: page 410, character 6
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 1, page 629, character 2
  • Unihan data for U+54ED

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.
Wikipedia has an article on:

Glyph origin[edit]

Shuowen interprets it to be a phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *ŋ̊ʰoːɡ): semantic (to speak loudly) + phonetic (OC *ŋoɡ), simplified to .

Alternatively, it may be an ideogrammic compound (會意): (to speak loudly) + (dog) – a dog's bark > cry; weep.

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *kuːk (to weep; to wail); cognate with Mizo kûk (to shriek) (STEDT).

This seems to be an area word; compare Proto-Mon-Khmer *kuk ~ kuuk ~ kuək ~ kək (to call), Proto-Austronesian *-kuk (sound of a sob) (Schuessler, 2007).

Pronunciation[edit]


Note:
  • khàu - vernacular;
  • khok - literary.
  • Wu
  • Xiang

    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location
    Mandarin Beijing /kʰu⁵⁵/
    Harbin /kʰu⁴⁴/
    Tianjin /kʰu²¹/
    Jinan /kʰu²¹³/
    Qingdao /kʰu⁵⁵/
    Zhengzhou /kʰu²⁴/
    Xi'an /kʰu²¹/
    Xining /kʰv̩⁴⁴/
    Yinchuan /kʰu¹³/
    Lanzhou /kʰu¹³/
    Ürümqi /kʰu²¹³/
    Wuhan /kʰu²¹³/
    Chengdu /kʰu³¹/
    Guiyang /kʰu²¹/
    Kunming /kʰu³¹/
    Nanjing /kʰuʔ⁵/
    Hefei /kʰuəʔ⁵/
    Jin Taiyuan /kʰuəʔ²/
    Pingyao /kʰuʌʔ¹³/
    Hohhot /kʰuəʔ⁴³/
    Wu Shanghai /kʰoʔ⁵/
    Suzhou /kʰoʔ⁵/
    Hangzhou /kʰoʔ⁵/
    Wenzhou /kʰu²¹³/
    Hui Shexian /kʰuʔ²¹/
    Tunxi /kʰu⁵/
    Xiang Changsha /kʰu²⁴/
    Xiangtan /kʰu²⁴/
    Gan Nanchang /kʰuʔ⁵/
    Hakka Meixian /kʰuk̚¹/
    Taoyuan /kʰuk̚²²/
    Cantonese Guangzhou /hok̚⁵/
    Nanning /huk̚⁵⁵/
    Hong Kong /huk̚⁵/
    Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /kʰɔk̚³²/
    /kʰau¹/
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /kʰouʔ²³/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /kʰu²⁴/
    Shantou (Min Nan) /kʰau²¹³/ 訓讀
    Haikou (Min Nan) /xau³⁵/ 訓號

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (29)
    Final () (3)
    Tone (調) Checked (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () I
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /kʰuk̚/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /kʰuk̚/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /kʰuk̚/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /kʰəwk̚/
    Li
    Rong
    /kʰuk̚/
    Wang
    Li
    /kʰuk̚/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /kʰuk̚/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    ku
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ khuwk ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*[kʰ]ˁok/
    English weep

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 16031
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*ŋ̊ʰoːɡ/
    Notes

    Definitions[edit]

    1. to weep; to cry; to wail

    Synonyms[edit]

    edit

    Compounds[edit]

    Descendants[edit]

    • Vietnamese: khóc (, )

    References[edit]


    Japanese[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    (uncommon “Hyōgai” kanji)

    1. to cry; to wail

    Readings[edit]

    Compounds[edit]


    Korean[edit]

    Etymology[edit]

    From Middle Chinese (MC kʰuk̚).

    Historical readings

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Hanja[edit]

    Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

    Wikisource

    (eumhun (ul gok))

    1. Hanja form? of (cry).

    Compounds[edit]

    References[edit]

    • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [2]

    Vietnamese[edit]

    Han character[edit]

    (khốc, khóc)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.