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See also:
U+8C37, 谷
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-8C37

[U+8C36]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+8C38]
U+2F95, ⾕
KANGXI RADICAL VALLEY

[U+2F94]
Kangxi Radicals
[U+2F96]

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
谷-order.gif

Han character[edit]

(radical 150, +0, 7 strokes, cangjie input 金人口 (COR), four-corner 80608, composition)

  1. Kangxi radical #150, .

Derived characters[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 1189, character 1
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 36182
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1652, character 19
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 6, page 3902, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+8C37

Chinese[edit]

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
谷-oracle.svg 谷-bronze.svg 谷-seal.svg 谷-bigseal.svg

Pictogram (象形) — valley () in between two mountains.

Etymology 1[edit]

simp. and trad.

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *kl(j)u(ŋ/k) (river; gorge). Cognate with Tibetan ལྗོངས (ljongs), Tibetan ཀླུང (klung) and Tibetan ལུང་པ (lung pa).

The sense "group" is from English group.

Pronunciation[edit]



Rime
Character
Reading # 1/3
Initial () (28)
Final () (3)
Tone (調) Checked (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () I
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/kuk̚/
Pan
Wuyun
/kuk̚/
Shao
Rongfen
/kuk̚/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/kəwk̚/
Li
Rong
/kuk̚/
Wang
Li
/kuk̚/
Bernard
Karlgren
/kuk̚/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
gu
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
guk1
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle
Chinese
‹ kuwk ›
Old
Chinese
/*C.qˁok/
English valley

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 2/3
No. 4299
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*kloːɡ/

Definitions[edit]

  1. valley; gorge; ravine
  2. mountain stream
  3. (figuratively) difficult position; predicament
  4. (Hong Kong Cantonese) (Facebook, etc.) group
  5. A surname​.

Compounds[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

simp. and trad.

Pronunciation[edit]



Rime
Character
Reading # 3/3
Initial () (36)
Final () (8)
Tone (調) Checked (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/jɨok̚/
Pan
Wuyun
/jiok̚/
Shao
Rongfen
/iok̚/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/juawk̚/
Li
Rong
/iok̚/
Wang
Li
/jĭwok̚/
Bernard
Karlgren
/i̯wok̚/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
juk6
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 3/3
No. 4310
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*ɡ·loːɡ/

Definitions[edit]

  1. Only used in 吐谷渾吐谷浑 (tǔyùhún, “Tuyuhun: name of an ancient nomadic people in northwestern China”).

Etymology 3[edit]

simp. and trad.

Pronunciation[edit]



Rime
Character
Reading # 2/3
Initial () (37)
Final () (3)
Tone (調) Checked (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () I
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/luk̚/
Pan
Wuyun
/luk̚/
Shao
Rongfen
/luk̚/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ləwk̚/
Li
Rong
/luk̚/
Wang
Li
/luk̚/
Bernard
Karlgren
/luk̚/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
luk6
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/3
No. 4298
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*ɦkroːɡ/
Notes

Definitions[edit]

  1. Only used in 谷蠡 (“title for Xiongnu officials”).

Etymology 4[edit]

For pronunciation and definitions of – see (“corn; grain; cereal; salary; etc.”).
(This character, , is the simplified form of .)
Notes:

Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

  1. valley
  2. lowland, plain

Readings[edit]

From Middle Chinese (MC kuk̚, “valley, gorge”):

From Middle Chinese (MC jɨok̚), as in 吐谷渾 (Toyokukon, Tuyuhun):

From Middle Chinese (MC luk̚), as in 谷蠡 (Rokuri):

Compounds[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Japanese Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia ja
Japanese Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia ja
English Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia
Kanji in this term
たに
Grade: 2
kun’yomi

From Old Japanese.

Alternative forms[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

(たに) (tani

  1. a valley (elongated depression between hills or mountains)
  2. a trough (low portion of a wave cycle)
  3. an intersection of two receding roof slopes
Derived terms[edit]

Proper noun[edit]

(たに) (Tani

  1. a surname

Etymology 2[edit]

Kanji in this term
やつ
Grade: 2
kun’yomi

Possibly from Ainu [Term?].

Alternative forms[edit]

Noun[edit]

(やつ) (yatsu

  1. a low-lying wetland
  2. a valley
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 3[edit]

Kanji in this term

Grade: 2
kun’yomi

Possibly a shift from yatsu above.

Noun[edit]

() (ya

  1. a valley
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 4[edit]

Kanji in this term
やち
Grade: 2
Irregular

Variant shift from yatsu above.

Alternative forms[edit]

Noun[edit]

(やち) (yachi

  1. (regional) Same as やつ (yatsu) above

Etymology 5[edit]

Kanji in this term
やと
Grade: 2
Irregular

Another variant shift from yatsu above.

Alternative forms[edit]

Noun[edit]

(やと) (yato

  1. Same as やつ (yatsu) above

Etymology 6[edit]

Kanji in this term
Grade: 2
Irregular

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Alternative forms[edit]

Noun[edit]

(さこ) (sako

  1. (regional, especially Kansai) a small valley

References[edit]

  1. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN

Korean[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Middle Chinese (MC kuk̚). Recorded as Middle Korean  (Yale: kwok) in Hunmong Jahoe (訓蒙字會 / 훈몽자회), 1527.

Hanja[edit]

Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

Wikisource

(eumhun (gol gok))

  1. Hanja form? of (valley).

Compounds[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

From Middle Chinese (MC jɨok̚). Recorded as Middle Korean 욕〮 (Yale: yok) in Hunmong Jahoe (訓蒙字會 / 훈몽자회), 1527.

Hanja[edit]

(eumhun 나라 이름 (nara ireum yok))

  1. (historical) Hanja form? of (Only used in 토욕혼 (吐谷渾, toyokhon, “Tuyuhun: name of an ancient nomadic people in northwestern China”)).

Etymology 3[edit]

From Middle Chinese (MC luk̚). Recorded as Middle Korean 록〮 (Yale: lwok) in Dongguk Jeongun (東國正韻 / 동국정운), 1448.

Hanja[edit]

(eumhun 벼슬 이름 (byeoseul ireum rok), South Korea 벼슬 이름 (byeoseul ireum nok))

  1. (historical) Hanja form? of / (Only used in 녹려 (谷蠡, nongnyeo, title for Xiongnu officials)).

References[edit]

  • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [1]

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

: Hán Nôm readings: cốc, góc, hốc, dục

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.