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U+4F59, 余
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-4F59

[U+4F58]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+4F5A]
See also: , , , and

Translingual[edit]

Shinjitai
Simplified /
Traditional

Han character[edit]

(radical 9 +5, 7 strokes, cangjie input 人一木 (OMD), four-corner 80904, composition)

Derived terms[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 99, character 2
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 515
  • Dae Jaweon: page 208, character 9
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 1, page 128, character 4
  • Unihan data for U+4F59

Chinese[edit]

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Bamboo and silk script Large seal script Small seal script
余-oracle.svg 余-bronze.svg 余-silk.svg 余-bigseal.svg 余-seal.svg





References:

Mostly from Richard Sears' Chinese Etymology site (authorisation),
which in turn draws data from various collections of ancient forms of Chinese characters, including:

  • Shuowen Jiezi (small seal),
  • Jinwen Bian (bronze inscriptions),
  • Liushutong (large seal) and
  • Xu Jiaguwen Bian (oracle bone script).
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*lja, *laː
*rlaː
*rlaː, *ɦlja, *l'aː
*rlaː, *l̥ʰaː, *l'aː
*rlaː
*rlaː, *l'aː
*ɦlja
*hljaː
*hljaː, *la
*hljaːʔ, *hljaːs
*hljaːʔ
*hljaːʔ, *hljaːs
*hljaːs
*l̥ʰaː, *l̥ʰaːʔ
*l̥ʰaː, *l̥ʰas, *las
*l̥ʰaː
*l̥ʰaː, *l'aː
*l'aː
*l'aː
*l'aː
*l'aː, *la
*l'aː, *l'a
*l'aː
*l'aː
*l'aː, *l̥ʰa
*l'aː
*lja
*lja
*ljaʔ
*ljaʔ
*l'a, *l'as
*rla
*rla
*rla
*ɦlja, *la
*hljaː
*hlja
*la
*la
*la
*la
*la
*las

Pictogram (象形) – thatched cottage; house. Original form of (OC *hljaːʔ, *hljaːs, “house”).

Etymology 1[edit]

For pronunciation and definitions of – see .
(This character, , is the simplified form of .)
Notes:

Etymology 2[edit]

simp. and trad.

Related to (OC *la, “I”), (OC *lɯ, “I”) and (OC *l'ɯmʔ, “my; I”), forming the *l- series of first-person Old Chinese personal pronouns. This series is commonly used by Shang Dynasty kings to refer to themselves.

In contrast, Old Chinese also had the *ŋ- series of first-person pronouns, represented by (OC *ŋaːlʔ, “I”) and (OC *ŋraː, *ŋaː, “I”), which became more widely used over time.

Pronunciation[edit]


Rime
Character
Reading # 1/2 2/2
Initial () (36) (25)
Final () (22) (100)
Tone (調) Level (Ø) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open Open
Division () III III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/jɨʌ/ /d͡ʑia/
Pan
Wuyun
/jiɔ/ /d͡ʑia/
Shao
Rongfen
/iɔ/ /d͡ʑia/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/jɨə̆/ /d͡ʑia/
Li
Rong
/iɔ/ /ʑia/
Wang
Li
/jĭo/ /ʑĭa/
Bernard
Karlgren
/i̯wo/ /ʑi̯a/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
ché
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle
Chinese
‹ yo ›
Old
Chinese
/*la/
English 1sg., prob. a polite form

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 15798
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*la/
Notes

Definitions[edit]

  1. I; me
  2. A surname​.
Synonyms[edit]
Dialectal synonyms of (“I”)
Variety Location Words
Classical Chinese
Formal (Written Standard Chinese)
Mandarin Beijing
Jinan
Xi'an
Wuhan
Chengdu
Yangzhou
Hefei
Cantonese Guangzhou
Hong Kong
Taishan
Yangjiang
Gan Nanchang
Hakka Meixian 𠊎
Miaoli (N. Sixian) 𠊎
Liudui (S. Sixian) 𠊎
Hsinchu (Hailu) 𠊎
Dongshi (Dabu) 𠊎
Zhuolan (Raoping) 𠊎
Yunlin (Zhao'an) 𠊎
Jin Taiyuan
Min Bei Jian'ou
Min Dong Fuzhou
Min Nan Xiamen
Taipei
Chaozhou
Wu Shanghai 阿拉
Suzhou
Wenzhou
Ningbo 我儂像我
Xiang Changsha
Shuangfeng

Compounds[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Suffix[edit]

‎(shinjitai kanji, kyūjitai kanji , hiragana , romaji -yo)

  1. over, more than

Synonyms[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(grade 5 “Kyōiku” kanjishinjitai kanji, kyūjitai form )

Readings[edit]

Compounds[edit]

Related terms[edit]


Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

‎(yeo) (hangeul , revised yeo, McCune-Reischauer yŏ)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(, dờ)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

References[edit]