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U+4F59, 余
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-4F59

[U+4F58]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+4F5A]

Translingual[edit]

Traditional
Shinjitai
Simplified 余/

Han character[edit]

(radical 9 +5, 7 strokes, cangjie input 人一木 (OMD), four-corner 80904, composition)

Derived characters[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 99, character 2
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 515
  • Dae Jaweon: page 208, character 9
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 1, page 128, character 4
  • Unihan data for U+4F59

Chinese[edit]

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Bamboo and silk script Large seal script Small seal script
余-oracle.svg 余-bronze.svg 余-silk.svg 余-bigseal.svg 余-seal.svg





References:

Mostly from Richard Sears' Chinese Etymology site (authorisation),
which in turn draws data from various collections of ancient forms of Chinese characters, including:

  • Shuowen Jiezi (small seal),
  • Jinwen Bian (bronze inscriptions),
  • Liushutong (large seal) and
  • Xu Jiaguwen Bian (oracle bone script).
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*lja, *laː
*rlaː
*rlaː, *ɦlja, *l'aː
*rlaː, *l̥ʰaː, *l'aː
*rlaː
*rlaː, *l'aː
*ɦlja
*hljaː
*hljaː, *la
*hljaːʔ, *hljaːs
*hljaːʔ
*hljaːʔ, *hljaːs
*hljaːs
*l̥ʰaː, *l̥ʰaːʔ
*l̥ʰaː, *l̥ʰas, *las
*l̥ʰaː
*l̥ʰaː, *l'aː
*l'aː
*l'aː
*l'aː
*l'aː, *la
*l'aː, *l'a
*l'aː
*l'aː
*l'aː, *l̥ʰa
*l'aː
*lja
*lja
*ljaʔ
*ljaʔ
*l'a, *l'as
*rla
*rla
*rla
*ɦlja, *la
*hljaː
*hlja
*la
*la
*la
*la
*la
*las

Pictogram (象形) – thatched cottage; house. Original form of (OC *hljaːʔ, *hljaːs, “house”).

Etymology 1[edit]

For pronunciation and definitions of – see .
(This character, , is the simplified form of .)
Notes:

Etymology 2[edit]

simp. and trad.

Related to (OC *la, “I”), (OC *lɯ, “I”) and (OC *l'ɯmʔ, “my; I”), forming the *l- series of first-person Old Chinese personal pronouns. This series is commonly used by Shang Dynasty kings to refer to themselves.

In contrast, Old Chinese also had the *ŋ- series of first-person pronouns, represented by (OC *ŋaːlʔ, “I”) and (OC *ŋraː, *ŋaː, “I”), which became more widely used over time.

Pronunciation[edit]


Rime
Character
Reading # 1/2 2/2
Initial () (36) (25)
Final () (22) (100)
Tone (調) Level (Ø) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open Open
Division () III III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/jɨʌ/ /d͡ʑia/
Pan
Wuyun
/jiɔ/ /d͡ʑia/
Shao
Rongfen
/iɔ/ /d͡ʑia/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/jɨə̆/ /d͡ʑia/
Li
Rong
/iɔ/ /ʑia/
Wang
Li
/jĭo/ /ʑĭa/
Bernard
Karlgren
/i̯wo/ /ʑi̯a/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
ché
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle
Chinese
‹ yo ›
Old
Chinese
/*la/
English 1sg., prob. a polite form

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 15798
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*la/
Notes

Definitions[edit]

  1. I; me
  2. A surname​.
Synonyms[edit]
Dialectal synonyms of (“I”) [map]
Variety Location Words
Classical Chinese
Formal (Written Standard Chinese)
Mandarin Beijing
Taiwan
Jinan
Xi'an
Wuhan
Chengdu
Yangzhou
Hefei
Cantonese Guangzhou
Hong Kong
Taishan
Yangjiang
Gan Nanchang
Hakka Meixian 𠊎
Miaoli (N. Sixian) 𠊎
Liudui (S. Sixian) 𠊎
Hsinchu (Hailu) 𠊎
Dongshi (Dabu) 𠊎
Zhuolan (Raoping) 𠊎
Yunlin (Zhao'an) 𠊎
Jin Taiyuan
Min Bei Jian'ou
Min Dong Fuzhou
Min Nan Xiamen
Quanzhou
Zhangzhou
Taipei
Kaohsiung
Chaozhou
Wu Shanghai 阿拉
Suzhou
Wenzhou
Ningbo 我儂像我
Xiang Changsha
Shuangfeng

Compounds[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Shinjitai

Kyūjitai

Kanji[edit]

(grade 5 “Kyōiku” kanjishinjitai kanji, kyūjitai form )

Readings[edit]

Compounds[edit]

Related terms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Kanji in this term

Grade: 5
on’yomi

Suffix[edit]

(shinjitai kanji, kyūjitai kanji , hiragana , rōmaji -yo)

  1. over, more than
Synonyms[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

(hiragana , rōmaji yo)

  1. I, me (first-person pronoun)
    • Isikawa Takuboku, Romazi Nikki
      Yo wa Sai wo aisiteru; aisiteru kara koso kono Nikki wo yomase taku nai no da.
      I love my Wife; it is precisely because I love her that I do not want her to read this Diary.
Alternative forms[edit]

Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

(yeo) (hangeul , revised yeo, McCune-Reischauer yŏ)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(, dờ)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

References[edit]