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See also: , , , and
U+4F59, 余
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-4F59

[U+4F58]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+4F5A]

Translingual[edit]

Japanese
Simplified
Traditional 余∣
Stroke order
余-order.gif

Han character[edit]

(radical 9, +5, 7 strokes, cangjie input 人一木 (OMD), four-corner 80904, composition)

Derived characters[edit]

Related characters[edit]

References[edit]

Wikidata has structured data related to:

Wikidata

  • KangXi: page 99, character 2
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 515
  • Dae Jaweon: page 208, character 9
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 1, page 128, character 4
  • Unihan data for U+4F59

Usage notes[edit]

  • This character is not to be confused with visually similar but unrelated .
  • Note that is also the simplified form of in mainland China and Japan. However, in traditional Chinese, and are two unrelated characters.

Chinese[edit]

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Spring and Autumn Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Bronze inscriptions Bronze inscriptions Chu Slip and silk script Qin slip script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
余-oracle.svg 余-bronze.svg ACC-b01105.svg ACC-b01109.svg 余-silk.svg 余-slip.svg 余-seal.svg 余-bigseal.svg





References:

Mostly from Richard Sears' Chinese Etymology site (authorisation),
which in turn draws data from various collections of ancient forms of Chinese characters, including:

  • Shuowen Jiezi (small seal),
  • Jinwen Bian (bronze inscriptions),
  • Liushutong (Liushutong characters) and
  • Yinxu Jiaguwen Bian (oracle bone script).
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*lja, *laː
*rlaː
*rlaː, *ɦlja, *l'aː
*rlaː, *l̥ʰaː, *l'aː
*rlaː
*rlaː, *l'aː
*ɦlja
*hljaː
*hljaː, *la
*hljaːʔ, *hljaːs
*hljaːʔ
*hljaːʔ, *hljaːs
*hljaːs
*l̥ʰaː, *l̥ʰaːʔ
*l̥ʰaː, *l̥ʰas, *las
*l̥ʰaː
*l̥ʰaː, *l'aː
*l'aː
*l'aː
*l'aː
*l'aː, *la
*l'aː, *l'a
*l'aː
*l'aː
*l'aː, *l̥ʰa
*l'aː
*lja
*lja
*ljaʔ
*ljaʔ
*l'a, *l'as
*rla
*rla
*rla
*ɦlja, *la
*hljaː
*hlja
*la
*la
*la
*la
*la
*las

Pictogram (象形) – thatched cottage; house. Original form of (OC *hljaːʔ, *hljaːs, “house”).

Etymology 1[edit]

For pronunciation and definitions of – see (“to remain; to have left; time after an event; etc.”).
(This character, , is the simplified form of .)
Notes:

Etymology 2[edit]

simp. and trad.
“I; me”
Related to (OC *la, “I”), (OC *lɯ, “I”) and (OC *l'ɯmʔ, “my; I”), forming the *l- series of first-person Old Chinese personal pronouns. This series is commonly used by Shang Dynasty kings to refer to themselves.
In contrast, Old Chinese also had the *ŋ- series of first-person pronouns, represented by (OC *ŋaːlʔ, “I”) and (OC *ŋraː, *ŋaː, “I”), which became more widely used over time.

Pronunciation[edit]


Rime
Character
Reading # 1/2
Initial () (36)
Final () (22)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/jɨʌ/
Pan
Wuyun
/jiɔ/
Shao
Rongfen
/iɔ/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/jɨə̆/
Li
Rong
/iɔ/
Wang
Li
/jĭo/
Bernard
Karlgren
/i̯wo/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle
Chinese
‹ yo ›
Old
Chinese
/*la/
English 1sg., prob. a polite form

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 15798
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*la/
Notes

Definitions[edit]

  1. I; me
  2. Alternative form of ().
  3. The fourth lunar month
  4. A surname​.
Synonyms[edit]
Dialectal synonyms of (“I”) [map]
Variety Location Words
Classical Chinese
Formal (Written Standard Chinese)
Mandarin Beijing
Taiwan
Jinan
Xi'an
Wuhan
Chengdu
Yangzhou
Hefei
Cantonese Guangzhou
Hong Kong
Taishan
Yangjiang
Gan Nanchang
Hakka Meixian 𠊎
Miaoli (N. Sixian) 𠊎
Liudui (S. Sixian) 𠊎
Hsinchu (Hailu) 𠊎
Dongshi (Dabu) 𠊎
Zhuolan (Raoping) 𠊎
Yunlin (Zhao'an) 𠊎
Jin Taiyuan
Min Bei Jian'ou
Min Dong Fuzhou
Min Nan Xiamen
Quanzhou
Zhangzhou
Taipei
Kaohsiung
Philippines (Manila)
Chaozhou
Wu Shanghai 阿拉
Suzhou
Wenzhou
Ningbo 我儂像我
Xiang Changsha
Shuangfeng

Compounds[edit]

Etymology 3[edit]

For pronunciation and definitions of – see .
(This character, , is a variant form of .)

Etymology 4[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Definitions[edit]

  1. Used in 接余.
  2. Used in 檮余梼余 (Chóutú).

Etymology 5[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]


Definitions[edit]

  1. Only used in 余吾.

Etymology 6[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]


Definitions[edit]

  1. Only used in 褒余.

Etymology 7[edit]

For pronunciation and definitions of – see (“big elephant”).
(This character, , is a variant form of .)

Japanese[edit]

Shinjitai

Kyūjitai

Kanji[edit]

(grade 5 “Kyōiku” kanjishinjitai kanji, kyūjitai form )

Readings[edit]

Compounds[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Kanji in this term

Grade: 5
on’yomi

Suffix[edit]

(shinjitai kanji, kyūjitai kanji , hiragana , rōmaji -yo)

  1. over, more than
Synonyms[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

(hiragana , rōmaji yo)

  1. I, me (first-person pronoun)
    • Isikawa Takuboku, Romazi Nikki
      Yo wa Sai wo aisiteru; aisiteru kara koso kono Nikki wo yomase taku nai no da.
      I love my Wife; it is precisely because I love her that I do not want her to read this Diary.
Alternative forms[edit]

Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

(yeo) (hangeul , revised yeo, McCune–Reischauer yŏ)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(, dờ)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

References[edit]