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Translingual[edit]

Han character[edit]

(radical 140 +7, 13 strokes, cangjie input 廿人一木 (TOMD), four-corner 44904, composition)

  1. bitter vegetable
  2. thistle
  3. common sowthistle (Sonchus oleraceus)
  4. bitter (taste)
  5. cruel
  6. flowering grass in profusion

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 1032, character 21
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 31008
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1492, character 8
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 5, page 3221, character 11
  • Unihan data for U+837C

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.

Pronunciation[edit]



Rime
Character
Reading # 1/3 2/3 3/3
Initial () (7) (27) (11)
Final () (23) (100) (98)
Tone (調) Level (Ø) Level (Ø) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open Open Open
Division () I III II
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/duo/ /ʑia/ /ɖˠa/
Pan
Wuyun
/duo/ /ʑia/ /ɖᵚa/
Shao
Rongfen
/do/ /ʑia/ /ȡa/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/dɔ/ /ʑia/ /ɖaɨ/
Li
Rong
/do/ /d͡ʑia/ /ȡa/
Wang
Li
/du/ /d͡ʑĭa/ /ȡa/
Bernard
Karlgren
/dʱuo/ /d͡ʑʰi̯a/ /ȡʱa/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
shé chá
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
chá
Middle
Chinese
‹ dræ ›
Old
Chinese
/*lˤra/
English (name of a plant)

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/3 2/3 3/3
No. 15748 15761 15776
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0 0 0
Corresponding
MC rime
𡨀
Old
Chinese
/*rlaː/ /*ɦlja/ /*l'aː/

Definitions[edit]

  1. (archaic) Sonchus oleraceus
  2. (archaic) Ixeris chinensis
  3. (archaic) Ixeris denticulata

Usage notes[edit]

  • can refer to one of several types of bitter tasting vegetables. Early Chinese texts are rather vague in their description. This makes it difficult to determine which species it originally referred to.

References[edit]

  • “國語辭典”, in (Please provide the title of the work)[1] (in Chinese), accessed 2007
  • “苦菜”, in (Please provide the title of the work)[2] (in Mandarin), Baidu.com, accessed 2007
  • “Ixeris chinensis”, in (Please provide the title of the work)[3] (in English), accessed 2007

Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(uncommon “Hyōgai” kanji)

  1. This entry needs a definition. Please add one, then remove {{defn}}.

Readings[edit]


Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(đồ, dưa, giưa)

  1. This entry needs a definition. Please add one, then remove {{defn}}.