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Translingual[edit]

Han character[edit]

(radical 140 +7, 13 strokes, cangjie input 廿人一木 (TOMD), four-corner 44904, composition)

  1. bitter vegetable
  2. thistle
  3. common sowthistle (Sonchus oleraceus)
  4. bitter (taste)
  5. cruel
  6. flowering grass in profusion

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 1032, character 21
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 31008
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1492, character 8
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 5, page 3221, character 11
  • Unihan data for U+837C

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.

Pronunciation[edit]


Middle Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Character (), Pronunciation 1/3

Initial: (7)
Final: (23)
Tone: Level (Ø)

Openness: Open
Division: I
Fanqie:

Expected Mandarin reflex: tú
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Pan
Wuyun
Shao
Rongfen
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Li
Rong
Wang
Li
Bernard
Karlgren
/duo/ /duo/ /do/ /dɔ/ /do/ /du/ /dʱuo/
Character (), Pronunciation 2/3

Initial: (27)
Final: (100)
Tone: Level (Ø)

Openness: Open
Division: III
Fanqie:

Expected Mandarin reflex: shé
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Pan
Wuyun
Shao
Rongfen
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Li
Rong
Wang
Li
Bernard
Karlgren
/ʑia/ /ʑia/ /ʑia/ /ʑia/ /d͡ʑia/ /d͡ʑĭa/ /d͡ʑʰi̯a/
Character (), Pronunciation 3/3

Initial: (11)
Final: (98)
Tone: Level (Ø)

Openness: Open
Division: II
Fanqie:

Expected Mandarin reflex: chá
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Pan
Wuyun
Shao
Rongfen
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Li
Rong
Wang
Li
Bernard
Karlgren
/ɖɣa/ /ɖɯa/ /ȡa/ /ɖaɨ/ /ȡa/ /ȡa/ /ȡʱa/
Old Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character Modern Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle Chinese Old Chinese English
chá ‹ dræ › /*lˤra/ (name of a plant)

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

  • Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
  • Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
  • Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
  • Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;
  • Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character No. Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
Corresponding
MC rime
Old Chinese Notes
15748 0 𡨀 /*rlaː/
15761 0 /*ɦlja/
15776 0 /*l'aː/

Definitions[edit]

  1. (archaic) Sonchus oleraceus
  2. (archaic) Ixeris chinensis
  3. (archaic) Ixeris denticulata

Usage notes[edit]

  • can refer to one of several types of bitter tasting vegetables. Early Chinese texts are rather vague in their description. This makes it difficult to determine which species it originally referred to.

References[edit]

  • “國語辭典”, in (Please provide the title of the work)[1] (in Chinese), accessed 2007
  • “苦菜”, in (Please provide the title of the work)[2] (in Mandarin), Baidu.com, accessed 2007
  • “Ixeris chinensis”, in (Please provide the title of the work)[3] (in English), accessed 2007

Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(uncommon “Hyōgai” kanji)

  1. This entry needs a definition. Please add one, then remove {{defn}}.

Readings[edit]


Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(đồ, dưa, giưa)

  1. This entry needs a definition. Please add one, then remove {{defn}}.