bitter

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English[edit]

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Pronunciation[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Middle English bitter, from Old English bitter, biter (bitter), from Proto-Germanic *bitraz (bitter), equivalent to bite +‎ -er (adjectival suffix). Compare Saterland Frisian bitter (bitter), West Frisian bitter (bitter), Dutch bitter (bitter), Low German bitter (bitter), German bitter (bitter), Swedish bitter (bitter), Icelandic bitur (bitter).

Adjective[edit]

bitter (comparative bitterer or more bitter, superlative bitterest or most bitter)

  1. Having an acrid taste (usually from a basic substance).
    The coffee tasted bitter.
    • 1907, Robert William Chambers, chapter III, in The Younger Set (Project Gutenberg; EBook #14852), New York, N.Y.: D. Appleton & Company, published 1 February 2005 (Project Gutenberg version), OCLC 24962326:
      Long after his cigar burnt bitter, he sat with eyes fixed on the blaze. When the flames at last began to flicker and subside, his lids fluttered, then drooped; but he had lost all reckoning of time when he opened them again to find Miss Erroll in furs and ball-gown kneeling on the hearth [].
  2. Harsh, piercing or stinging.
    • 1999, Neil Gaiman, Stardust, p.31 (Perennial paperback edition)
      It was at the end of February, [] when the world was cold, and a bitter wind howled down the moors [].
  3. Hateful or hostile.
    They're bitter enemies.
    • 1749, Henry Fielding, The History of Tom Jones, a Foundling
      He inveighed against the folly of making oneself liable for the debts of others; vented many bitter execrations against the brother; and concluded with wishing something could be done for the unfortunate family.
    • Bible, Colossians iii. 19
      Husbands, love your wives, and be not bitter against them.
  4. Cynical and resentful.
    I've been bitter ever since that defeat.
Usage notes[edit]
  • The one-word comparative form bitterer and superlative form bitterest exist, but are less common than their two-word counterparts more bitter and most bitter.
Synonyms[edit]
  • (cynical and resentful): jaded
Antonyms[edit]
Derived terms[edit]
Translations[edit]
The translations below need to be checked and inserted above into the appropriate translation tables, removing any numbers. Numbers do not necessarily match those in definitions. See instructions at Wiktionary:Entry layout#Translations.
See also[edit]

Noun[edit]

bitter (countable and uncountable, plural bitters)

  1. (usually in the plural bitters) A liquid or powder, made from bitter herbs, used in mixed drinks or as a tonic.
    • 1773, Oliver Goldsmith, She Stoops to Conquer
      Thus I begin: "All is not gold that glitters,
      "Pleasure seems sweet, but proves a glass of bitters.
  2. A type of beer heavily flavored with hops.
  3. (nautical) A turn of a cable about the bitts.
Derived terms[edit]
Translations[edit]
The translations below need to be checked and inserted above into the appropriate translation tables, removing any numbers. Numbers do not necessarily match those in definitions. See instructions at Wiktionary:Entry layout#Translations.

Verb[edit]

bitter (third-person singular simple present bitters, present participle bittering, simple past and past participle bittered)

  1. To make bitter.
    (Can we find and add a quotation of Wolcott to this entry?)

Etymology 2[edit]

bit +‎ -er

Noun[edit]

bitter (plural bitters)

  1. (computing, informal, in combination) A hardware system whose architecture is based around units of the specified number of bits (binary digits).
    • 1983, Computerworld (volume 17, number 49, page 21)
      However, 16-bitters are far more expensive than the 8-bit variety. And, unfortunately, have only a handful of business applications software packages that really take advantage of them.
    • 1984, Electronic Business (volume 10, page 154)
      The company believes that the 32-bit market will almost equal that of 16-bitters by the end of the decade. Chip maker Zilog Inc., not a major player in the 16-bit arena, is even more bullish about 32-bitters as it readies its own version for market.

Danish[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Borrowing from Middle Low German bitter.

Adjective[edit]

bitter

  1. bitter (all meanings)
Inflection[edit]
Inflection of bitter
Positive Comparative Superlative
Common singular bitter bitrere bitrest2
Neuter singular bittert bitrere bitrest2
Plural bitre bitrere bitrest2
Definite attributive1 bitre bitrere bitreste
1) When an adjective is applied predicatively to something definite, the corresponding "indefinite" form is used.
2) The "indefinite" superlatives may not be used attributively.
Related terms[edit]

Noun[edit]

bitter c (singular definite bitteren, plural indefinite bittere)

  1. bitter (the liquid used in drinks)
  2. A bitter form of an aquavit
Inflection[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Borrowing from English bitter.

Noun[edit]

bitter c

  1. bitter (type of beer - only known generally in Denmark for a few years)

Dutch[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Middle Dutch bitter, from Old Dutch bitter, from Proto-Germanic *bitraz.

Pronunciation[edit]

Adjective[edit]

bitter (comparative bitterder, superlative bitterst)

  1. bitter (having an acrid taste)

Inflection[edit]

Inflection of bitter
uninflected bitter
inflected bittere
comparative bitterder
positive comparative superlative
predicative/adverbial bitter bitterder het bitterst
het bitterste
indefinite m./f. sing. bittere bitterdere bitterste
n. sing. bitter bitterder bitterste
plural bittere bitterdere bitterste
definite bittere bitterdere bitterste
partitive bitters bitterders

Related terms[edit]

See also[edit]


Finnish[edit]

Noun[edit]

bitter

  1. bitter (type of beer)

Declension[edit]

Inflection of bitter (Kotus type 6/paperi, no gradation)
nominative bitter bitterit
genitive bitterin bitterien
bittereiden
bittereitten
partitive bitteriä bittereitä
bitterejä
illative bitteriin bittereihin
singular plural
nominative bitter bitterit
accusative nom. bitter bitterit
gen. bitterin
genitive bitterin bitterien
bittereiden
bittereitten
partitive bitteriä bittereitä
bitterejä
inessive bitterissä bittereissä
elative bitteristä bittereistä
illative bitteriin bittereihin
adessive bitterillä bittereillä
ablative bitteriltä bittereiltä
allative bitterille bittereille
essive bitterinä bittereinä
translative bitteriksi bittereiksi
instructive bitterein
abessive bitterittä bittereittä
comitative bittereineen

French[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Verb[edit]

bitter

  1. (transitive, slang) to understand, usually used in negative form and especially with rien.
    J’ai rien bitté au cours.
    (please add an English translation of this usage example)

Conjugation[edit]

Synonyms[edit]


German[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old High German bittar, from Proto-Germanic *bitraz. Compare Low German bitter, Dutch bitter, English bitter, Swedish bitter, Icelandic bitur.

Pronunciation[edit]

Adjective[edit]

bitter (comparative bitterer, superlative am bittersten)

  1. bitter

Declension[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

Adverb[edit]

bitter

  1. bitterly

Synonyms[edit]

Further reading[edit]


Italian[edit]

Noun[edit]

bitter m (invariable)

  1. bitters

Middle Dutch[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old Dutch bitter, from Proto-Germanic *bitraz.

Pronunciation[edit]

Adjective[edit]

bitter

  1. bitter (taste)
  2. sad, painful

Inflection[edit]

This adjective needs an inflection-table template.

Descendants[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • bitter”, in Vroegmiddelnederlands Woordenboek, 2000
  • bitter”, in Middelnederlandsch Woordenboek, 1929

Norwegian Bokmål[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Middle Low German bitter and Old Norse bitr

Adjective[edit]

bitter (neuter singular bittert, definite singular and plural bitre, comparative bitrere, indefinite superlative bitrest, definite superlative bitreste)

  1. bitter

Derived terms[edit]

References[edit]


Norwegian Nynorsk[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Middle Low German bitter and Old Norse bitr

Adjective[edit]

bitter (neuter singular bittert, definite singular and plural bitre, comparative bitrare, indefinite superlative bitrast, definite superlative bitraste)

  1. bitter

References[edit]


Old English[edit]

Adjective[edit]

bitter

  1. Alternative form of biter

Old High German[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Adjective[edit]

bitter

  1. Alternative form of bittar

References[edit]

  • Joseph Wright, An Old High German Primer

Swedish[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old Norse bitr (partly through the influence of Middle Low German bitter), from Proto-Germanic *bitraz.

Pronunciation[edit]

Adjective[edit]

bitter (comparative bittrare, superlative bittrast)

  1. bitter; having an acrid taste
  2. bitter; hateful
  3. bitter; resentful

Declension[edit]

Inflection of bitter
Indefinite Positive Comparative Superlative2
Common singular bitter bittrare bittrast
Neuter singular bittert bittrare bittrast
Plural bittra bittrare bittrast
Definite Positive Comparative Superlative
Masculine singular1 bittre bittrare bittraste
All bittra bittrare bittraste
1) Only used, optionally, to refer to things whose natural gender is masculine.
2) The indefinite superlative forms are only used in the predicative.