bitter

Definition from Wiktionary, the free dictionary
Jump to: navigation, search

English[edit]

Wikipedia has articles on:

Wikipedia

Etymology[edit]

PIE root
*bʰeyd-

From Middle English bitter, from Old English bitter, biter ‎(bitter), from Proto-Germanic *bitraz ‎(bitter), equivalent to bite +‎ -er ‎(adjectival suffix). Compare Saterland Frisian bitter ‎(bitter), West Frisian bitter ‎(bitter), Dutch bitter ‎(bitter), Low German bitter ‎(bitter), German bitter ‎(bitter), Swedish bitter ‎(bitter), Icelandic bitur ‎(bitter).

Pronunciation[edit]

Adjective[edit]

bitter ‎(comparative bitterer or more bitter, superlative bitterest or most bitter)

  1. Having an acrid taste (usually from a basic substance).
    The coffee tasted bitter.
    • 1907, Robert W. Chambers, chapter III, The Younger Set:
      Long after his cigar burnt bitter, he sat with eyes fixed on the blaze. When the flames at last began to flicker and subside, his lids fluttered, then drooped; but he had lost all reckoning of time when he opened them again to find Miss Erroll in furs and ball-gown kneeling on the hearth [].
  2. Harsh, piercing or stinging.
    A bitter wind blew from the north.
    • 1999, Neil Gaiman, Stardust, p.31 (Perennial paperback edition)
      It was at the end of February, [] when the world was cold, and a bitter wind howled down the moors [].
  3. Hateful or hostile.
    They're bitter enemies.
    • Bible, Colossians iii. 19
      Husbands, love your wives, and be not bitter against them.
  4. Cynical and resentful.
    I've been bitter ever since that defeat.

Usage notes[edit]

  • The one-word comparative form bitterer and superlative form bitterest exist, but are less common than their two-word counterparts more bitter and most bitter.

Derived terms[edit]

See also[edit]

Antonyms[edit]

Synonyms[edit]

  • (cynical and resentful): jaded

Translations[edit]

The translations below need to be checked and inserted above into the appropriate translation tables, removing any numbers. Numbers do not necessarily match those in definitions. See instructions at Help:How to check translations.

Noun[edit]

bitter ‎(plural bitters)

  1. (usually in the plural bitters) A liquid or powder, made from bitter herbs, used in mixed drinks or as a tonic.
    • 1773, Oliver Goldsmith, She Stoops to Conquer
      Thus I begin: "All is not gold that glitters,
      "Pleasure seems sweet, but proves a glass of bitters.
  2. A type of beer heavily flavored with hops.
  3. (nautical) A turn of a cable about the bitts.

Derived terms[edit]

Translations[edit]

The translations below need to be checked and inserted above into the appropriate translation tables, removing any numbers. Numbers do not necessarily match those in definitions. See instructions at Help:How to check translations.

Verb[edit]

bitter ‎(third-person singular simple present bitters, present participle bittering, simple past and past participle bittered)

  1. To make bitter.
    (Can we find and add a quotation of Wolcott to this entry?)

Danish[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

PIE root
*bʰeyd-

From Middle Low German bitter.

Adjective[edit]

bitter ‎(neuter bittert, definite and plural bitre, comparative bitrere, superlative bitrest)

  1. bitter (all meanings)
Related terms[edit]

Noun[edit]

bitter c (singular definite bitteren, plural indefinite bittere)

  1. bitter (the liquid used in drinks)
  2. A bitter form of an aquavit
Inflection[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

PIE root
*bʰeyd-

From English bitter.

Noun[edit]

bitter c

  1. bitter (type of beer - only known generally in Denmark for a few years)

Dutch[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Etymology[edit]

PIE root
*bʰeyd-

From Middle Dutch bitter, from Old Dutch *bittar, from Proto-Germanic *bitraz. Compare Low German bitter, German bitter, West Frisian bitter, English bitter, Icelandic bitur.

Adjective[edit]

bitter ‎(comparative bitterder, superlative bitterst)

  1. bitter (having an acrid taste)

Inflection[edit]

Inflection of bitter
uninflected bitter
inflected bittere
comparative bitterder
positive comparative superlative
predicative/adverbial bitter bitterder het bitterst
het bitterste
indefinite m./f. sing. bittere bitterdere bitterste
n. sing. bitter bitterder bitterste
plural bittere bitterdere bitterste
definite bittere bitterdere bitterste
partitive bitters bitterders

Related terms[edit]

See also[edit]


French[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Verb[edit]

bitter

  1. (transitive, slang) to understand, usually used in negative form and especially with rien.
    J’ai rien bitté au cours.
    (please add an English translation of this usage example)

Conjugation[edit]

Synonyms[edit]


German[edit]

Etymology[edit]

PIE root
*bʰeyd-

From Old High German bittar, from Proto-Germanic *bitraz. Compare Low German bitter, Dutch bitter, English bitter, Swedish bitter, Icelandic bitur.

Pronunciation[edit]

Adjective[edit]

bitter ‎(comparative bitterer, superlative am bittersten)

  1. bitter

Declension[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

Adverb[edit]

bitter

  1. bitterly

Synonyms[edit]

External links[edit]


Italian[edit]

Noun[edit]

bitter m ‎(invariable)

  1. bitters

Middle Dutch[edit]

Etymology[edit]

PIE root
*bʰeyd-

From Old Dutch bitter, from Proto-Germanic *bitraz.

Pronunciation[edit]

Adjective[edit]

bitter

  1. bitter (taste)
  2. sad, painful

Descendants[edit]


Norwegian Bokmål[edit]

Etymology[edit]

PIE root
*bʰeyd-

From Middle Low German bitter and Old Norse bitr

Adjective[edit]

bitter ‎(neuter singular bittert, definite singular and plural bitre, comparative bitrere, indefinite superlative bitrest, definite superlative bitreste)

  1. bitter

Derived terms[edit]

References[edit]


Norwegian Nynorsk[edit]

Etymology[edit]

PIE root
*bʰeyd-

From Middle Low German bitter and Old Norse bitr

Adjective[edit]

bitter ‎(neuter singular bittert, definite singular and plural bitre, comparative bitrare, indefinite superlative bitrast, definite superlative bitraste)

  1. bitter

References[edit]


Old English[edit]

Adjective[edit]

bitter

  1. Alternative form of biter

Old High German[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Adjective[edit]

bitter

  1. Alternative form of bittar

References[edit]

  • Joseph Wright, An Old High German Primer

Swedish[edit]

Etymology[edit]

PIE root
*bʰeyd-

From Old Norse bitr (partly through the influence of Middle Low German bitter), from Proto-Germanic *bitraz.

Pronunciation[edit]

Adjective[edit]

bitter (comparative bittrare, superlative bittrast)

  1. bitter; having an acrid taste
  2. bitter; hateful
  3. bitter; resentful

Declension[edit]

Inflection of bitter
Indefinite/attributive Positive Comparative Superlative2
Common singular bitter bittrare bittrast
Neuter singular bittert bittrare bittrast
Plural bittra bittrare bittrast
Definite Positive Comparative Superlative
Masculine singular1 bittre bittrare bittraste
All bittra bittrare bittraste
1) Only used, optionally, to refer to things whose natural gender is masculine.
2) The indefinite superlative forms are only used in an attributive role.