苦い

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Japanese[edit]

Kanji in this term
にが
Grade: 3
kun’yomi

Etymology[edit]

Ultimately from Proto-Japonic *ninka; cognate with Proto-Ryukyuan *niga.

First cited to a text from 858.[1]

Pronunciation[edit]

  • Tokyo pitch accent of inflected forms of "苦い"
Source: Online Japanese Accent Dictionary
Stem forms
Continuative (連用形) 苦く がく
[níꜜgàkù]
[nìgáꜜkù]
Terminal (終止形) 苦い [nìgáꜜì]
Attributive (連体形) 苦い [nìgáꜜì]
Key constructions
Informal negative 苦くない がくない
くない
[níꜜgàkùnàì]
[nìgáꜜkùnàì]
Informal past 苦かった がかった
かった
[níꜜgàkàttà]
[nìgáꜜkàttà]
Informal negative past 苦くなかった がくなかった
くなかった
[níꜜgàkùnàkàttà]
[nìgáꜜkùnàkàttà]
Formal 苦いです いです [nìgáꜜìdèsù]
Conjunctive 苦くて がくて
くて
[níꜜgàkùtè]
[nìgáꜜkùtè]
Conditional 苦ければ がければ
ければ
[níꜜgàkèrèbà]
[nìgáꜜkèrèbà]

Adjective[edit]

(にが) (nigai-i (adverbial (にが) (nigaku))

  1. bitter
    (にが)コーヒー
    nigai kōhī
    bitter coffee
    (にが)経験(けいけん)
    nigai keiken
    bitter experience

Inflection[edit]

Antonyms[edit]

Related terms[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ ”, in 日本国語大辞典 (Nihon Kokugo Daijiten, Nihon Kokugo Daijiten)[1] (in Japanese), concise edition, Tōkyō: Shogakukan, 2000
  2. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  3. ^ 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN
  4. ^ 1997, 新明解国語辞典 (Shin Meikai Kokugo Jiten), Fifth Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN