辛い

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Japanese[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Kanji in this term
から
Grade: S
kun’yomi
Alternative spelling
鹹い

Pronunciation[edit]

  • Tokyo pitch accent of inflected forms of "辛い"
Source: Online Japanese Accent Dictionary
Stem forms
Continuative (連用形) 辛く らく
[káꜜràkù]
[kàráꜜkù]
Terminal (終止形) 辛い [kàráꜜì]
Attributive (連体形) 辛い [kàráꜜì]
Key constructions
Informal negative 辛くない らくない
くない
[káꜜràkùnàì]
[kàráꜜkùnàì]
Informal past 辛かった らかった
かった
[káꜜràkàttà]
[kàráꜜkàttà]
Informal negative past 辛くなかった らくなかった
くなかった
[káꜜràkùnàkàttà]
[kàráꜜkùnàkàttà]
Formal 辛いです いです [kàráꜜìdèsù]
Conjunctive 辛くて らくて
くて
[káꜜràkùtè]
[kàráꜜkùtè]
Conditional 辛ければ らければ
ければ
[káꜜràkèrèbà]
[kàráꜜkèrèbà]

Adjective[edit]

(から) (karai-i (adverbial (から) (karaku))

  1. spicy hot
  2. salty
    Synonyms: 塩辛い, しょっぱい
  3. (of alcohol) bitter, not sweet
  4. harsh
Inflection[edit]
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Kanji in this term
つら
Grade: S
kun’yomi

Pronunciation[edit]

  • Tokyo pitch accent of inflected forms of "辛い"
Source: Online Japanese Accent Dictionary
Stem forms
Continuative (連用形) 辛く らく [tsùrákú]
Terminal (終止形) 辛い らい
[tsùráí]
[tsùráꜜì]
Attributive (連体形) 辛い らい [tsùráí]
Key constructions
Informal negative 辛くない らくな [tsùrákúnáꜜì]
Informal past 辛かった かった [tsùráꜜkàttà]
Informal negative past 辛くなかった らくなかった [tsùrákúnáꜜkàttà]
Formal 辛いです いです [tsùráꜜìdèsù]
Conjunctive 辛くて くて [tsùráꜜkùtè]
Conditional 辛ければ ければ [tsùráꜜkèrèbà]

Adjective[edit]

(つら) (tsurai-i (adverbial (つら) (tsuraku))

  1. painful
Inflection[edit]

Etymology 3[edit]

The tsurai changes to zurai as an instance of rendaku (連濁).

Suffix[edit]

(づら) (-zurai-i (adverbial (づら) (-zuraku))

  1. difficult to, hard to
    一様(いちよう)文字(もじ)(ちい)さく()づらかったため[1]
    ichiyō ni moji ga chīsaku yomizurakatta tame
    since the characters were uniformly small and hard to read
    (いっ)(けん)しただけじゃわかり(づら)[2]
    ikken shita dake ja wakarizurai ga
    though it's hard to tell at first sight

Inflection[edit]

Usage notes[edit]

Attaches to the continuative form (連用形) of a verb. Inflects like an -i adjective. Usually spelled in hiragana, with the kanji spelling usually reserved for formal contexts.

Synonyms[edit]

Antonyms[edit]

References[edit]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1974, 新明解国語辞典 (Shin Meikai Kokugo Jiten), Second Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō