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See also: Asper and as per



  • (UK) IPA(key): /ˈæspə/
  • (US) IPA(key): /ˈæspəɹ/
  • (file)

Etymology 1[edit]

From Middle English aspre, from Old French aspre (modern French âpre), from Latin asper (rough).

Alternative forms[edit]


asper (comparative more asper, superlative most asper)

  1. (obsolete) Rough or harsh; severe, stern, serious.
    • 1631, [Francis Bacon], “(please specify |century=I to X)”, in Sylua Syluarum: Or A Naturall Historie. In Ten Centuries. [], 3rd edition, London: [] VVilliam Rawley; [p]rinted by J[ohn] H[aviland] for William Lee [], OCLC 1044372886:
      An asper sound.


asper (uncountable)

  1. (phonetics, obsolete) Rough breathing; a mark (#) indicating that part of a word is aspirated, or pronounced with h before it.

Etymology 2[edit]

From Middle English asper, from Middle French aspre or Italian aspro, both from Ancient Greek ἄσπρον (áspron), from neuter of ἄσπρος (áspros, white), from Latin asper (rough, newly minted)

Alternative forms[edit]


asper (plural aspers)

  1. (historical) Any one of several small coins, circulated around the eastern Mediterranean area from the 12th to 17th centuries.




Probably from the Proto-Indo-European root *h₂esp- (to cut), also present in Ancient Greek ἀσπίς (aspís) and Hittite [script needed] (ḫasp-).



asper (feminine aspera, neuter asperum, comparative asperior, superlative asperrimus, adverb asperē); first/second-declension adjective (nominative masculine singular in -er)

  1. rough, uneven, coarse
  2. unrefined, rude
  3. sharp, newly minted
  4. harsh, bitter, fierce
    odia asperabitter hatred


First/second-declension adjective (nominative masculine singular in -er).

Number Singular Plural
Case / Gender Masculine Feminine Neuter Masculine Feminine Neuter
Nominative asper aspera asperum asperī asperae aspera
Genitive asperī asperae asperī asperōrum asperārum asperōrum
Dative asperō asperō asperīs
Accusative asperum asperam asperum asperōs asperās aspera
Ablative asperō asperā asperō asperīs
Vocative asper aspera asperum asperī asperae aspera

Derived terms[edit]


  • Albanian: ashpër
  • Aromanian: ascuru
  • Asturian: aspru, ásperu
  • Catalan: aspre
  • French: âpre
  • Galician: áspero
  • Greek: άσπρο (áspro)


  • asper in Charlton T. Lewis and Charles Short (1879) A Latin Dictionary, Oxford: Clarendon Press
  • asper in Charlton T. Lewis (1891) An Elementary Latin Dictionary, New York: Harper & Brothers
  • asper in Gaffiot, Félix (1934) Dictionnaire illustré Latin-Français, Hachette
  • Carl Meissner; Henry William Auden (1894) Latin Phrase-Book[1], London: Macmillan and Co.
    • (ambiguous) rough and hilly ground: loca aspera et montuosa (Planc. 9. 22)
  • asper in Harry Thurston Peck, editor (1898) Harper's Dictionary of Classical Antiquities, New York: Harper & Brothers
  • asper in William Smith, editor (1848) A Dictionary of Greek Biography and Mythology, London: John Murray


Norwegian Bokmål[edit]


asper m or f

  1. indefinite plural of asp