-er

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Contents

English[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

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  • (US) enPR: ər, Lua error in Module:IPA/tracking at line 58: attempt to index global 'tracking' (a nil value)

Etymology 1[edit]

From Middle English -er, -ere, from Old English -ere (agent suffix), from Proto-Germanic *-ārijaz (agent suffix). Usually thought to have been borrowed from Latin -ārius. Cognate with Dutch -er and -aar, Low German -er, German -er, Swedish -are, Icelandic -ari, Gothic -𐌰𐍂𐌴𐌹𐍃 (-areis). Compare also Ancient Greek -ήριος (-ḗrios), Old Church Slavonic -арь (-arĭ).

Reinforced by the synonymous but unrelated Old French -or, -eor (Anglo-Norman variant -our), from Latin -(ā)tor, from Proto-Indo-European *-tōr.

Alternative forms[edit]

  • -'er (following an abbreviation, or sometimes following a number)

Suffix[edit]

-er

  1. (added to verbs) A person or thing that does an action indicated by the root verb; used to form an agent noun.
    reader, cooker, computer, runner-up, do-gooder
  2. (added to verbs, informal) A person or thing to which the root verb can satisfactorily be done.
    a real looker: a beautiful woman
    a keeper: a person or thing worth keeping
  3. (added to a noun denoting an occupation) A person whose occupation is (the noun).
    astrologer, cricketer, trumpeter
  4. (added to a number, measurement or noun denoting a quantified set) A name for a person or thing that is based on a number (with or without a noun).
    sixer, six-footer, three-wheeler, first-grader
  5. (slang, chiefly entertainment, with few limitations) Used to form nouns shorter than more formal synonyms.
    percenter (commission agent); one-hander (one-man show); oater (a Western-themed movie)
  6. (informal, added to a noun) One who enjoys.
    Tooners lined up for tickets to Toy Story.
  7. (derogatory, added to nouns) Person who subscribes to a particular conspiracy theory or unorthodox belief.
    anti-vaxxer, birther, flat-Earther, 9/11 truther
Usage notes[edit]
  • The suffix may be used to form an agent noun of many verbs. In compound or phrasal verbs, the suffix usually follows the verb component (as in passerby and runner-up) but is sometimes added at the end, irrespective of the position of the verb component (do-gooder) or is added to both components for humorous effect (washer-upper).
  • The entertainment slang sense is sometimes referred to as the Variety -er.
Derived terms[edit]


Translations[edit]

The translations below are a guide only. For more precise translations, see specific words ending with this suffix.

See also[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

From Middle English -er, -ere, from Old English -ware (suffix denoting residency or meaning "inhabitant of"), from Proto-Germanic *warjaz (defender, inhabitant), from Proto-Indo-European *wer- (to close, cover, protect, save, defend). Cognate with Dutch -er, German -er, Swedish -are.

Suffix[edit]

-er

  1. (added to a proper noun) Suffix denoting a resident or inhabitant of (the place denoted by the proper noun); used to form a demonym.
    New Yorker, Londoner, Dubliner, New Englander
  2. Suffix denoting residency in or around a place, district, area, or region.
    islander, highlander, eastender, prisoner
Derived terms[edit]


Translations[edit]

Etymology 3[edit]

From Middle English -er, -re, from Old English -ru (plural suffix), from Proto-Germanic *-izō (plural suffix). Cognate with Dutch -er (plural ending), German -er (plural ending). See also -ren.

Suffix[edit]

-er

  1. (obsolete, no longer productive) Suffix used to form the plural of a small number of English nouns.
    childer, calver, lamber, linder ("loins")
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 4[edit]

Representing various noun-suffixes in Old French and Anglo-Norman, variously -er, -ier and -ieur, from Latin -aris, -arius, -atorium.

Suffix[edit]

-er

  1. person or thing connected with
    butler

See also[edit]

Etymology 5[edit]

From Middle English -ere, from Old English -ra, from Proto-Germanic *-izô or Proto-Germanic *-ōzô (a derivative of Etymology 6, below); related to superlative -est.

Suffix[edit]

-er

  1. (added to certain adjectives and adverbs, now especially short ones) more; used to form the comparative.
    longer, bigger, faster, sooner, simpler
Usage notes[edit]
  • (more; used to form the comparative): Most adjectives whose comparatives are formed using the suffix -er also form their superlatives using the suffix -est.
    • Final -y preceded by a consonant becomes -i- when the suffix -er or -est is added.
      easyeasiereasiest; graygrayergrayest
    • When the stress is on the final (or only) syllable of the adjective, and this syllable ends in a single consonant preceded by a single vowel, the final consonant is doubled when the suffix is added.
      dimdimmerdimmest
    • The suffixes -er and -est may be used to form the comparative and superlative of most adjectives and adverbs that have one syllable and some that have two or more syllables.
      hothotterhottest; fastfasterfastest; funnyfunnierfunniest; sugarysugariersugariest
    • Some adjectives and adverbs form their comparatives and superlatives irregularly:
      goodbetterbest; farfartherfarthest, or farfurtherfurthest, depending on the meaning
    • The comparatives and superlatives of other adverbs and adjectives that have two or more syllables, and adjectives that are participles are formed with more and most.
      rigidmore rigidmost rigid; enormousmore enormousmost enormous; burntmore burntmost burnt; freezingmore freezingmost freezing
    • If in doubt, use more to form the comparative and most to form the superlative; for example, thirsty may become thirstier and thirstiest, but more thirsty and most thirsty are also acceptable.
  • Words ending with -ng are pronounced /ŋ/ by most dialects instead of /ŋɡ/. However, when -er or -est is added to an adjective, the /ɡ/ appears (in most dialects).
    long (/lɒŋ/) → longer (/ˈlɒŋ.ɡə(ɹ)/); young (/jʌŋ/) → youngest (/ˈjʌŋ.ɡɪst/)
Translations[edit]

Etymology 6[edit]

From Middle English -er, from Old English -or, from Proto-Germanic *-ōz.

Suffix[edit]

-er

  1. (added to certain adverbs) more; used to form the comparative.
Translations[edit]

Etymology 7[edit]

From Middle English -eren, -ren, -rien, from Old English -erian, -rian, from Proto-Germanic *-rōną. Cognate with West Frisian -erje, Dutch -eren, German -eren, -ern, Danish -re, Swedish -ra.

Suffix[edit]

-er

  1. (added to a verb or imitative sound) frequently; used to form frequentative verbs.
    twitter, clamber, bicker, mutter, wander, flutter, flicker, slither, smother, sputter
Synonyms[edit]
  • (used to form frequentative): -le
Translations[edit]
See also[edit]

Etymology 8[edit]

Representing Old French -er, the infinitive verbal ending.

Suffix[edit]

-er

  1. (added to a verb) instance of (the verbal action); used to form nouns from verbs, especially in legal terms.
    disclaimer, misnomer, remitter, rebutter
Derived terms[edit]


Etymology 9[edit]

From Middle English -er, -ere (diminutive suffix). Compare -el.

Suffix[edit]

-er

  1. (added to a verb or noun) used to form diminutives.
    shiver < shive
    sliver < slive
    splinter < splint

Etymology 10[edit]

Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia

UK 19th century. Originally Rugby School slang. Later adopted by Oxford University and then wider British society.

Suffix[edit]

-er

  1. (originally school slang) Used to form slang or colloquial equivalents of words.
    soccer, rugger, brekkers, Radder, divvers, footer
Derived terms[edit]


Related terms[edit]
Translations[edit]

Etymology 11[edit]

From Chinese -兒 (-ér).

Suffix[edit]

-er

  1. (fiction) signifying a little one, junior, child, younger person. Attached to a name, usually a portion of the given name. (Can we add an example for this sense?)
Usage notes[edit]

In Chinese-language fiction translated into English, to add a Chinese flavour (Mandarin language), some translators leave the term "-er" untranslated, left in unaccented pinyin. This practice is similar to not translating "-kun" / "-chan" / "-san" or "sensei" in English-language Japanese fiction.

Coordinate terms[edit]
  • -chan (similar suffix extracted from Japanese into English, when used in English-translated Japanese fiction)

See also[edit]

Anagrams[edit]


Afrikaans[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Dutch -er.

Suffix[edit]

-er

  1. -er

Breton[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

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Suffix[edit]

-er

  1. person or thing that (does the action indicated by the root); used to form an agent noun.
    brezhoneg (Breton (language)) + ‎-er → ‎brezhoneger (Breton-speaker)
    c'hoari (game; to play) + ‎-er → ‎c'hoarier (player, actor)
    tredan (electricity) + ‎-er → ‎tredaner (electrician)

Derived terms[edit]



Catalan[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old Provençal, from Latin -ārius. Compare the borrowed doublet -ari.

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-er m (plural -ers)

  1. Used to form nouns meaning the location or object where something is usually found.
  2. Used to form nouns meaning a plant which is cultivated to produce something.
  3. Used to form nouns meaning the purpose of something or an object used for that purpose.

Usage notes[edit]

The equivalent suffix -era can be used to form feminine nouns with these meanings, but usually only the masculine or feminine form will be found in Catalan.

Suffix[edit]

-er (feminine -era, masculine plural -ers, feminine plural -eres)

  1. Used to form nouns and adjectives referring to an inhabitant of somewhere.
  2. Used to form nouns and adjectives referring to engaging in a profession.
  3. Used to form nouns and adjectives referring to being prone to some activity or characteristic.

Usage notes[edit]

Because these senses are used to form adjectives of two forms or nouns referring to animate objects, both the masculine and feminine forms will be found in Catalan, with the lemma entry found at the masculine form.

See also[edit]

Derived terms[edit]



Chuukese[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

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Suffix[edit]

-er

  1. (added to possessive nouns) their
  2. (added to verbs as an indirect object) them

Related terms[edit]



Danish[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-er

  1. Forms agent nouns from verbs, with the sense "someone or something that verbs".
  2. Forms plural forms of many nouns.
  3. Forms the present tense of many verbs.
  4. Forms demonyms.
  5. Forms informal action nouns from verbs.
  6. (especially definite) Forms informal abbreviations of nouns.
    døgnkiosk (kiosk open around the clock) -> døgner
  7. Forms a piece of currency from numbers.
    fem (five) -> femmer (fiver, five pounds/dollars/kroner/etc.)
  8. Forms a die throw result from numbers.
    Du skal slå mindst en treer for at komme videre.
    You must throw at least a three to move on.

Derived terms[edit]



Dutch[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Old Dutch *-āri, -ere, from Proto-Germanic *-ārijaz, borrowed from Latin -ārius. Cognate with Dutch -aar.[1]

Suffix[edit]

-er m (plural -ers, feminine -ster)

  1. appended to the stem of a verb, it yields a noun which signifies the subject who performs the action of that verb (see agent noun)
Derived terms[edit]


Etymology 2[edit]

From Old Dutch -iro, -oro, from Proto-Germanic *-izô, *-ōzô.

Suffix[edit]

-er

  1. appended to an adjective, it yields its comparative form
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 3[edit]

From Old Dutch *-āri, -ere, from Proto-Germanic *warjaz.

Suffix[edit]

-er

  1. Suffix forming nouns denoting male inhabitants or residents of a place.
    Een Amsterdammer
    A (male) inhabitant of Amsterdam
  2. Suffix forming adjectives denoting something originating from a place.
    Het Groninger museum
    The museum of Groningen
Synonyms[edit]
  • (male inhabitant): -aar
  • (origin): -s
Antonyms[edit]
  • (male inhabitant): -se (female inhabitant)

References[edit]

  1. ^ A. van Loey, "Schönfeld's Historische Grammatica van het Nederlands", Zutphen, 8. druk, 1970, ISBN 90-03-21170-1; § 175

French[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Latin -are.

Suffix[edit]

-er

  1. Forms infinitives of first-conjugation verbs

Usage notes[edit]

  • Many of these verbs are directly descended from Latin, rather than from stem + suffix

German[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

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Etymology 1[edit]

From Old High German -āri, from Proto-Germanic *-ārijaz, from Latin -arius. Cognate with English -er, Dutch -er and -aar.[1]

Suffix[edit]

-er

  1. Forms agent nouns etc. from verbs, suffixed to the verb stem.
    arbeiten 'to work'; arbeit- + -er '-er' → Arbeiter 'worker'
    bohren 'to drill'; bohr- + -erBohrer 'drill'

Etymology 2[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-er

  1. -s (indicating a time of ten years)
    1990 '1990'; 1990 + -er '-s' → 1990er '1990s'

Etymology 3[edit]

EB1911 - Volume 01 - Page 001 - 1.svg This entry lacks etymological information. If you are familiar with the origin of this term, please add it to the page per etymology instructions. You can also discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.

Suffix[edit]

-er m

  1. Forms nouns indicating an inhabitant of a place, or a person originating from a place.
Declension[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-er

  1. Forms invariable adjectives indicating origin from a place, or association with a place.
Usage notes[edit]
  • In modern German, words formed with this suffix -er are written with a capital letter (§ 61 of the official spelling rules as of 2011), e.g. ein Berliner Pfannkuchen. In the past, they were sometimes written with a lowercase letter like most other adjectives still are, e.g. ein berliner Pfannkuchen.[2]
  • Such words are indeclinable adjectives in modern German, as noted by the Duden, DWDS and other modern references. They originated as genitive plurals of substantives, as noted by 18th century grammarian Johann Christoph Adelung and 19th century linguist Hermann Möller: e.g. Berliner Pfannkuchen = Pfannkuchen der Berliner = "pancake of the Berliners".[3][4]
  • In case of placenames which are written with a space, the derived word can be written with a space or with a hyphen (§ 49 of the official spelling rules as of 2011), e.g. Bad SchandauBad Schandauer or Bad-Schandauer.

Derived terms[edit]


References[edit]

  1. ^ A. van Loey, "Schönfeld's Historische Grammatica van het Nederlands", Zutphen, 8. druk, 1970, ISBN 90-03-21170-1; § 175
  2. ^ The current official spelling rules prescribe the capital letter without further explanation and without indicating the part of speech of the words formed with the suffix (compare -isch/-sch, derivatives of which are labelled adjectives in § 62).
  3. ^ Johann Christoph Adelung: Grammatisch-kritisches Wörterbuch der Hochdeutschen Mundart, vol. 1, Leipzig, 1793, pp. 1848-1852, sub verbo 4. -Er.
  4. ^ Hermann Möller, Ahd. frôno (nhd. fron-) als elliptischer Plural, in the Zeitschrift für deutsche Wortforschung, volume 4, page 95

Kurdish[edit]

Examples

Suffix[edit]

-er

  1. Used to form nouns refering to doer or who works on something.

Latin[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-er

  1. first-person singular present passive subjunctive of

Luxembourgish[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From a Proto-Germanic borrowing of Latin -arius.

Pronunciation[edit]

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Suffix[edit]

-er

  1. -er (suffix used to form agent nouns from verbs)

Derived terms[edit]



Middle Dutch[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old Dutch -iro, -oro, from Proto-Germanic *-izô, *-ōzô.

Suffix[edit]

-er

  1. -er. Forms the comparative of adjectives.

Alternative forms[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

See Category:Middle Dutch adjective comparative forms.

Related terms[edit]

Descendants[edit]


Middle French[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

  • -ier (typically early Middle French)

Etymology 1[edit]

From Old French -ier, -er, from Latin -are.

Suffix[edit]

-er

  1. Forms infinitives of first-conjugation verbs
Descendants[edit]
Usage notes[edit]
  • Many of these verbs are directly descended from Latin, rather than from stem + suffix

Etymology 2[edit]

From Old French -ier.

Suffix[edit]

-er

  1. Forms nouns, often denoting professions
    boucher
    butcher
Descendants[edit]

Norman[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-er

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

Derived terms[edit]



Norwegian Bokmål[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Phonetik.svg This entry needs pronunciation information. If you are familiar with the IPA then please add some!

Etymology[edit]

From Old Norse -ari.

Suffix[edit]

-er

  1. (added to verbs) person or thing that does an action indicated by the root verb
  2. (added to place names) person or thing that originates in the place indicated by the place name
  3. (added to numbers) order, position, value or similar indicated by the numeral

References[edit]



Old English[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-er

  1. Alternative form of -or

Old French[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Latin -āre.

Suffix[edit]

-er

  1. Alternative form of -ier, verbal suffix
Usage notes[edit]
  • All varieties of Old French use -er but it's more common in Anglo-Norman than in France, specifically before certain consonants such as c and g.

Etymology 2[edit]

From Latin -ārius.

Suffix[edit]

-er

  1. (chiefly Anglo-Norman) Alternative form of -ier, suffix indicating a profession
    falconer, fauconer
    falconer

Portuguese[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-er

  1. The infinitive of the second class (-er class) of verbs.

Conjugation[edit]


Spanish[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Latin -ere

Suffix[edit]

-er

  1. The infinitive suffix for many verbs.

Conjugation[edit]

See: Appendix:Spanish verbs in -er

See also[edit]


Swedish[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-er

  1. One of two suffices for indefinite plural for nouns of the third declension (common and neuter); the second one is -r
  2. Suffix for present tense, active voice, indicative mood for one of the groups of Swedish verbs

See also[edit]

plural suffix
present tense suffix

Turkish[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Ottoman Turkish ر (-r, -er), from Proto-Turkic *-er. Cognate with Old Turkic 𐰼 (-r, -er).

Suffix[edit]

-er

  1. Simple present and aorist tense marker
  2. Makes adjectives out of verbs
  3. Makes nouns out of verbs
    kes- (to cut) + ‎-er → ‎keser (adze)
    Yağmur diner gibi oldu.The rain seems to be stopping.
Related terms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

From Proto-Turkic [Term?].

Alternative forms[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-er

  1. suffix for distributive numbers
    birbirer
    üçüçer
    dörtdörder

Usage notes[edit]

  • Becomes -şer when used after vowel-final words, such as iki (two)ikişer.