-ing

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See also: ing, ing-, -ing-, Ing, and Ing.

English[edit]

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Alternative forms[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Middle English -ing, from Old English -ing, -ung ‎(-ing, suffix forming nouns from verbs), from Proto-Germanic *-ingō, *-ungō, from Proto-Indo-European *-enkw-. Cognate with West Frisian -ing ‎(-ing), Dutch -ing ‎(-ing), Low German -ing ‎(-ing), German -ung ‎(-ing), Swedish -ing ‎(-ing), Icelandic -ing ‎(-ing).

Suffix[edit]

-ing

  1. Used to form gerunds, a type of verbal nouns, from verbs.
    the making of the film
  2. Used to form uncountable nouns from various parts of speech denoting materials or systems of objects considered collectively.
    Roofing is a material that covers a roof.
    Piping is a system of pipes considered collectively.
  3. Used to form nouns of the action or the procedure of a verb; usually identical with meaning 1. in the English language or expressed with -tion instead
    The forging of the sword took hours. - where forging denotes a planned procedure of work rather than a specific physical action
Synonyms[edit]
Derived terms[edit]
Translations[edit]

The translations below are a guide only. See individual words for precise translations.

See also[edit]

  • (collection): work

Etymology 2[edit]

From Middle English -inge, -ynge, alteration of earlier -inde, -ende, -and (see -and), from Old English -ende ‎(present participle ending), from Proto-Germanic *-andz ‎(present participle ending), from Proto-Indo-European *-nt-. Cognate with Dutch -end, German -end, Gothic -𐌰𐌽𐌳 ‎(-and), Latin -ans, -ant-, Ancient Greek -ον ‎(-on), Sanskrit -अन्त् ‎(-ant). More at -and.

Suffix[edit]

-ing

  1. Used to form present participles of verbs.
    Rolling stones gather no moss.
    You are making a mess.
    • a. 2001, Brian Hall, “Beej's Guide to Network Programming”, “Using Internet Sockets”
      If you are connect()ing to a remote machine [] you can simply call connect(), it'll check to see if the socket is unworthy, and will bind() it to an unused local port if necessary.
Derived terms[edit]
Translations[edit]

Etymology 3[edit]

From Middle English -ing, from Old English -ing, from Proto-Germanic *-ingaz. Akin to Old Norse -ingr, Gothic -𐌹𐌲𐌲𐍃 ‎(-iggs).

Suffix[edit]

-ing

  1. Forming derivative nouns (originally masculine), with the senseson of, belonging to’, as patronymics or diminutives. No longer productive in either sense.
    Browning, Channing, Ewing
    bunting
    shilling
    farthing
  2. Having a specifed quality, characteristic, or nature; of the kind of
    sweeting
    whiting
    gelding
Derived terms[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Allan Metcalf, How We Talk: American Regional English, Houghton Mifflin, Boston: 2000, p 143

Danish[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old Norse -ingr, -angr, -ungr.

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-ing, -ning

  1. added to a verb to form a noun for an action or process, the result of or the subject performing such action
  2. designate a person of a certain origin or with certain qualities

Usage notes[edit]

Nouns are in the common gender, and inflected -(n)ing -en, -er, -erne.

Synonyms[edit]

  • (added to a verb to form a noun for an action or process): -else, -tion

Derived terms[edit]


Dutch[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Middle Dutch -inge, from Old Dutch -unga, -onga, from Proto-Germanic *-ungō.

Suffix[edit]

-ing f ‎(plural -ingen, diminutive -inkje or -ingetje)

  1. Creates action nouns referring to the performance a verb, or the result thereof.
Derived terms[edit]


Etymology 2[edit]

From Middle Dutch -inc, from Old Dutch -ing, from Proto-Germanic *-ingaz.

Alternative forms[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-ing m

  1. (no longer productive) Forms nouns for a person originating from a place or family.
Usage notes[edit]

The suffix is no longer productive and is not generally recognised in this meaning. It is found in many place names and surnames, however.


French[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From English.

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): /iŋ/, /iŋɡ/, /iɲ/

Suffix[edit]

-ing

  1. suffix used to form nouns

Usage notes[edit]


Hungarian[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-ing

  1. (frequentative suffix) Added to a verb to form a verb denoting repetitive action.
    kering ‎(to circulate, orbit)

Usage notes[edit]

  • (frequentative suffix) Harmonic variants:
    -ong is added to back vowel words
    hajol ‎(to bend) → hajlong ‎(to bow repetitively)
    -eng is added to unrounded front vowel words
    derül ‎(to clear up) → dereng ‎(to dawn; to appear vaguely)
    -öng is added to rounded front vowel words
    őrül ‎(to go insane) → őrjöng ‎(to be wild, furious, raging)
    düh ‎(fury, rage) → dühöng ‎(to be in a raging temper)
    -ang is added to back vowel words (rare)
    lappang ‎(to lurk)
    -ing is added to front vowel words (rare)
    kering ‎(to circulate, orbit)

Derived terms[edit]


See also[edit]


Norwegian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

EB1911 - Volume 01 - Page 001 - 1.svg This entry lacks etymological information. If you are familiar with the origin of this term, please add it to the page as described here.

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-ing f or m (see below)

  1. Used to form verbal nouns from verbs; -ing.
    Han var lei av masing.
    Norwegian

The gender is usually f if the word ended in -ing in Old Norse and m if it ended in -ingr or -ingi. Living things like islending ‎(Icelander) and dumming ‎(idiot) are usually m whilst inanimate things like stråling ‎(radiation) and eting ‎(the act of eating) usually are f.

Derived terms[edit]


Old English[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Variant of -ung.

Alternative forms[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-ing f

  1. Forming nouns from verbs, indicating action, process or material.

Etymology 2[edit]

From Proto-Germanic *-ingaz.

Suffix[edit]

-ing m

  1. Forming derivatives of masculine nouns with sense of ‘belonging to, son of’.

Swedish[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old Norse ingr, lingr, from Proto-Germanic *-ingaz.

Suffix[edit]

-ing

  1. -ing; making nouns. See also -ning.

Derived terms[edit]



Uzbek[edit]

Phonetik.svg This entry needs pronunciation information. If you are familiar with the IPA then please add some!

Etymology[edit]

EB1911 - Volume 01 - Page 001 - 1.svg This entry lacks etymological information. If you are familiar with the origin of this term, please add it to the page as described here.

Suffix[edit]

-ing (-инг)

  1. second-person singular possessive suffix. Used after a noun ending in a consonant. It has the same meaning as sening ‎(your) placed before a noun.
    Bu kitobing.
    This is your book.

Usage notes[edit]

When directly addressing another person, it is polite to use the plural -ingiz or -ngiz forms.