-ing

Definition from Wiktionary, the free dictionary
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See also: ing, Ing, ING, -ing-, ing., Ing., and -ïng

English[edit]

English Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia

Alternative forms[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Middle English -ing, from Old English -ing, -ung (-ing, suffix forming nouns from verbs), from Proto-Germanic *-ingō, *-ungō. Cognate with West Frisian -ing (-ing), Dutch -ing (-ing), Low German -ing (-ing) Low German -ink (-ing), German -ung (-ing), Swedish -ing (-ing), Icelandic -ing (-ing).

Suffix[edit]

-ing

  1. Used to form gerunds, a type of verbal nouns, from verbs.
    While forging the sword, something happened.; Trying to forge a sword, he has broken it.
  2. Used to form uncountable nouns from verbs denoting the act of doing something, an action.
    A making of a film; The forging of the sword took several hours of planning, preparation, and metalwork
  3. Used to form uncountable nouns from various parts of speech denoting materials or systems of objects considered collectively.
    Roofing is a material that covers a roof.
    Piping is a system of pipes considered collectively.
Usage notes[edit]
  • Compare -tion, which can be applied to some (Latinate) nouns with almost the same meaning: «the activating of the weapon must be stopped» vs «the act of activating the weapon must be stopped» vs «the activation of the weapon must be stopped»; in the first and third phrases the words in bold are nouns, while in the second phrase the word in bold is a gerund and the noun is act, short form of action.
Synonyms[edit]
Derived terms[edit]
Translations[edit]

The translations below are a guide only. See individual words for precise translations.

See also[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

From Middle English -inge, -ynge, alteration or replacement by the above of earlier -inde, -ende, -and (see -and), from Old English -ende (present participle ending), from Proto-Germanic *-andz (present participle ending), from Proto-Indo-European *-nt-. Cognate with Dutch -end, German -end, Gothic -𐌰𐌽𐌳𐍃 (-ands), -𐍉𐌽𐌳𐍃 (-ōnds), Latin -ans, -ant-, Ancient Greek -ον (-on), Sanskrit -अन्त् (-ant). More at -and.

Suffix[edit]

-ing

  1. Used to form present participles of verbs.
    Rolling stones gather no moss.
    You are making a mess.
    • a. 2001, Brian Hall, “Beej's Guide to Network Programming”, “Using Internet Sockets”
      If you are connect()ing to a remote machine [] you can simply call connect(), it'll check to see if the socket is unworthy, and will bind() it to an unused local port if necessary.
Derived terms[edit]
Translations[edit]

Etymology 3[edit]

From Middle English -ing, from Old English -ing, from Proto-Germanic *-ingaz. Akin to Old Norse -ingr, Gothic -𐌹𐌲𐌲𐍃 (-iggs).

Suffix[edit]

-ing

  1. Forming derivative nouns (originally masculine), with the senseson of, belonging to’, as patronymics or diminutives. No longer productive in either sense.
    Browning, Channing, Ewing
    bunting
    shilling
    farthing
  2. Having a specified quality, characteristic, or nature; of the kind of
    sweeting
    whiting
    gelding
Derived terms[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Orton, H. et al., The Linguistic Atlas of England, Croom Helm, London: 1978.
  2. ^ Allan Metcalf, How We Talk: American Regional English, Houghton Mifflin, Boston: 2000, p 143

Anagrams[edit]


Danish[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old Norse -ingr, -angr, -ungr.

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-ing, -ning

  1. added to a verb to form a noun for an action or process, the result of or the subject performing such action
  2. designate a person of a certain origin or with certain qualities

Usage notes[edit]

Nouns are in the common gender, and inflected -(n)ing -en, -er, -erne.

Synonyms[edit]

  • (added to a verb to form a noun for an action or process): -else, -tion

Derived terms[edit]


Dutch[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Middle Dutch -inge, from Old Dutch -unga, -onga, from Proto-Germanic *-ungō.

Suffix[edit]

-ing f (plural -ingen, diminutive -inkje or -ingetje)

  1. Creates action nouns referring to the performance of a verb, or the result thereof.
Derived terms[edit]


Etymology 2[edit]

From Middle Dutch -inc, from Old Dutch -ing, from Proto-Germanic *-ingaz.

Alternative forms[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-ing m

  1. (no longer productive) Forms nouns for a person originating from a place or family.
Usage notes[edit]

The suffix is no longer productive and is not generally recognised in this meaning. It is found in many place names and surnames, however.


French[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From English -ing.

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-ing

  1. Used to form verbal nouns from verbs

Usage notes[edit]

  • Most terms suffixed with -ing are borrowed directly from English, but some are not (e.g., surbooking, relooking).

Fuyug[edit]

Noun[edit]

-ing

  1. plural marker
    amul (woman) : amuling (women)

References[edit]

  • Robert L. Bradshaw, Fuyug grammar sketch (2007)

German[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From English -ing. Doublet of native -ung.

Suffix[edit]

-ing n (genitive -ings, plural -ings)

  1. (in English borrowings) -ing
  2. (productive, colloquial, humorous) Used to form verbal nouns which jocularly imply that something is a sport, trend, or fashionable concept.
    Extremsparingextreme saving: saving money as a sport
    Cloud-Abwaschingcloud dish washing: dish washing following the cloud principle
    • 2001, Ulrich Busse, Typen von Anglizismen, in: Gerhard von Stickel (ed.), Neues und Fremdes im deutschen Wortschatz, De Gruyter, Berlin/Boston, p. 131-155 [only a mentioning]
      Typen von Anglizismen: von der heilago geist bis Extremsparing – aufgezeigt anhand ausgewählter lexikographischer Kategorisierungen.
      Types of anglicisms: from der heilago geist [Old High German for “the Holy Spirit”] to extreme saving – illustrated by means of selected lexicographic categorisations.
    • 2012, Hans Zippert, Wir verlagern das ganze Leben in die Internetwolke, in: Website of Die Welt
      Beim Cloud-Abwasching wird das schmutzige Geschirr einfach ausgelagert, damit es keinen Speicherplatz in der Spüle wegnimmt und jeder darauf zugreifen kann, der die Lizenz zum Abwasch hat.
      In cloud dish washing, the dirty crockery is simply swapped out, so it doesn’t take up any memory in the kitchen sink and everybody who has a wash-up licence can access it.

Usage notes[edit]

  • Productive use is chiefly restricted to ad-hoc formations (such as the two examples above).

Hungarian[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-ing

  1. (frequentative suffix) Added to a verb to form a verb denoting repetitive action.
    kering (to circulate, orbit)

Usage notes[edit]

  • (frequentative suffix) Harmonic variants:
    -ong is added to back vowel words
    hajol (to bend)hajlong (to bow repetitively)
    -eng is added to unrounded front vowel words
    derül (to clear up)dereng (to dawn; to appear vaguely)
    -öng is added to rounded front vowel words
    őrül (to go insane)őrjöng (to be wild, furious, raging)
    düh (fury, rage)dühöng (to be in a raging temper)
    -ang is added to back vowel words (rare)
    lappang (to lurk)
    -ing is added to front vowel words (rare)
    kering (to circulate, orbit)

Derived terms[edit]


See also[edit]


Icelandic[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-ing

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

Derived terms[edit]



Low German[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-ing

  1. (Mecklenburg-Vorpommern) Used to form diminutives.

Usage notes[edit]

  • Nouns derived with this suffix are neuters and their plural end in -ings.
  • The suffix can not only be added to nouns, but also to other parts of speech like adverbs.

Derived terms[edit]

See also[edit]


Middle English[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Old English -ing, -ung, from Proto-Germanic *-ingō, *-ungō.

Alternative forms[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

  • (mainly Early ME) IPA(key): /unɡ/, [uŋɡ]
  • IPA(key): /inɡ/, [iŋɡ]

Suffix[edit]

-ing

  1. Forms gerunds from verbs, typically referring to the process of performing the verb, but also referring to the effect of the verb, what the verb affects, the capability or permission of performing the verb, or that which performs the verb.
  2. Forms collective nouns from verbs meaning "to utilise (a given thing)".
Derived terms[edit]


Descendants[edit]
  • English: -ing, -in'
  • Scots: -in, -ing, -in'
References[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

From Old English -ing, from Proto-Germanic *-ingaz.

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-ing

  1. Forms diminutives; these can be either affective or insulting.
  2. (marginally productive) Forms nouns meaning "son of".
Descendants[edit]
References[edit]

Norwegian Bokmål[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old Norse -ingr m, -ingi m, -ing f

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-ing m or f or m (see below)

  1. Used to form verbal nouns from verbs; -ing.
    Han var lei av masing.He was tired of nagging

Usage notes[edit]

The gender is usually m or f (in Bokmål) if the word ended in -ing in Old Norse and m if it ended in -ingr or -ingi. Living things like islending (Icelander) and dumming (idiot) are usually m whilst inanimate things like stråling (radiation) and eting (the act of eating) usually are m or f.

Derived terms[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]


Norwegian Nynorsk[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old Norse -ingr m, -ingi m, -ing f

Suffix[edit]

-ing f or m (see below)

  1. Used to form verbal nouns from verbs; -ing.

Usage notes[edit]

The gender is usually f (in Nynorsk) if the word ended in -ing in Old Norse and m if it ended in -ingr or -ingi. Living things like islending (Icelander) and dumming (idiot) are usually m whilst inanimate things like stråling (radiation) and eting (the act of eating) usually are f.

Derived terms[edit]

See Bokmål above.


See also[edit]

References[edit]


Old English[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Variant of -ung.

Alternative forms[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-ing

  1. Forming nouns from verbs, indicating action, process or material.

Synonyms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

From Proto-Germanic *-ingaz.

Suffix[edit]

-ing

  1. Forming derivatives of masculine nouns with sense of ‘belonging to, son of’.

Old Norse[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Germanic *-ingō.

Suffix[edit]

-ing f

  1. Forms gerund nouns from verbs

Declension[edit]

Derived terms[edit]


See also[edit]


Spanish[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From English -ing.

Suffix[edit]

-ing

  1. Used to form verbal nouns from verbs

Usage notes[edit]

  • Most terms suffixed with -ing are borrowed directly from English, but some are not (e.g., footing (pseudo-anglicism), puenting, edredoning).

Derived terms[edit]



Swedish[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old Norse ingr, lingr, from Proto-Germanic *-ingaz.

Suffix[edit]

-ing

  1. Used to form verbal nouns from verbs; -ing. See also -ning.

Derived terms[edit]


Anagrams[edit]


Tagalog[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-ing

  1. Used to form diminutives.

See also[edit]


Uzbek[edit]

Etymology[edit]

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Pronunciation[edit]

Phonetik.svg This entry needs pronunciation information. If you are familiar with the IPA then please add some!

Suffix[edit]

-ing (-инг)

  1. second-person singular possessive suffix. Used after a noun ending in a consonant. It has the same meaning as sening (your) placed before a noun.
    Bu kitobing.This is your book.

Usage notes[edit]

When directly addressing another person, it is polite to use the plural -ingiz or -ngiz forms.