-ach

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See also: ach, ACH, and ách

Chuukese[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-ach

  1. (added to possessive nouns) our (inclusive)

Related terms[edit]



Irish[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Old Irish -ach, from Proto-Celtic *-ākos, from Proto-Indo-European *-eh₂kos, *-eh₂ḱos, from a-stem suffix *-eh₂- + adjectival suffix *-kos, *-ḱos; compare Welsh -og. Doublet of -óg.

Alternative forms[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-ach m

  1. Forms nouns from other nouns and adjectives with the sense of ‘person or thing connected or involved with, belonging to, having’.
    Éire (Ireland) + ‎-ach → ‎Éireannach (Irish (person))
    Sasana (England) + ‎-ach → ‎Sasanach (English (person))
  2. Forms adjectives from other nouns and adjectives with the sense of ‘connected or involved with, belonging to, having’.
    bunús (basis) + ‎-ach → ‎bunúsach (basic)
    fearg (anger) + ‎-ach → ‎feargach (angry)
    Éire (Ireland) + ‎-ach → ‎Éireannach (Irish)
    Sasana (England) + ‎-ach → ‎Sasanach (English)
Declension[edit]

For nouns:

For adjectives:

Derived terms[edit]


Etymology 2[edit]

From Old Irish -ach, from Proto-Celtic *-Vkos (V standing for any vowel), the genitive singular ending of certain nouns ending in *-Vxs.

Suffix[edit]

-ach

  1. forms the genitive singular of some fifth-declension nouns

Middle Welsh[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Brythonic *-ox, with the vowel altered by influence from -af.

Suffix[edit]

-ach

  1. forms a comparative adjective

Derived terms[edit]



Old Irish[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Proto-Celtic *-ākos, from Proto-Indo-European *-eh₂kos, *-eh₂ḱos, from a-stem suffix *-eh₂- + adjectival suffix *-kos, *-ḱos. Doublet of -óc.

Compare Latin -ācus, -icus.

Suffix[edit]

-ach

  1. Forms adjectives meaning "related to, having, characterised by, prone to".
Usage notes[edit]

After a palatalised consonant, the suffix becomes -ech.

Inflection[edit]
o/ā-stem
Singular Masculine Feminine Neuter
Nominative -ach -ach -ach
Vocative -aig*
-ach**
Accusative -ach -aig
Genitive -aig -aige -aig
Dative -uch -aig -uch
Plural Masculine Feminine/neuter
Nominative -aig -acha
Vocative -achu
-acha
Accusative -achu
-acha
Genitive -ach
Dative -achaib
Notes *modifying a noun whose vocative is different from its nominative

**modifying a noun whose vocative is identical to its nominative
† not when substantivized

Derived terms[edit]


Descendants[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Same as the adjective suffix -ach. Originally formed only adjectives, but the suffix was already used in Proto-Celtic to form nouns.

Suffix[edit]

-ach m

  1. Forms nouns meaning "person or thing connected or involved with, belonging to, having".
Usage notes[edit]

After a palatalised consonant, the suffix becomes -ech.

Inflection[edit]
Masculine o-stem
Singular Dual Plural
Nominative -ach -achL -aigL
Vocative -aig -achL -achu
Accusative -achN -achL -achu
Genitive -aigL -ach -achN
Dative -uchL -achaib -achaib
Initial mutations of a following adjective:
  • H = triggers aspiration
  • L = triggers lenition
  • N = triggers nasalization
Derived terms[edit]


Descendants[edit]

References[edit]

  • Rudolf Thurneysen, A Grammar of Old Irish (Dublin, 1946), §347

Scottish Gaelic[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old Irish -ach, from Proto-Celtic *-ākos, from Proto-Indo-European *-eh₂kos, *-eh₂ḱos, from a-stem suffix *-eh₂- + adjectival suffix *-kos, *-ḱos; compare Welsh -og. Doublet of -ag.

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-ach (plural -aich or -aichean)

  1. Forming nouns from nouns and adjectives with the sense of ‘person or thing connected or involved with, belonging to, having’.

Derived terms[edit]



Welsh[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Middle Welsh -ach, from Proto-Brythonic *-ox, with the vowel altered by influence from -af.

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-ach

  1. Forms a comparative of an adjective of one or two syllables.

Usage notes[edit]

Triggers fortition on the final consonant of the adjective, changing b/d/g to p/t/c.

Derived terms[edit]