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From Ottoman Turkish قالمق (qalmaq, to halt, cease moving, remain, remain behind, be left, to wait, to be deficient), from Old Anatolian Turkish [script needed] (qal-, to remain), from Proto-Turkic *kiāl-mak (to stay behind, remain).[1]

Cognate with Old Turkic 𐰴𐰞 (qal-, to be left (behind)), Old Uyghur [script needed] (qal-, to remain), Karakhanid قَلْماقْ (qalmāq, to remain), Azeri qalmaq (to remain, stay), Bashkir ҡалыу (qalïw, to remain), Chagatai [script needed] (qalmaq, to remain), Chuvash юлма (julma, to remain), Kazakh қалу (qalw, to remain), Khakas халарға (xalarğa, to remain), Kipchak [Arabic needed] (qal-, to remain, stay), Kyrgyz калуу (kaluu, to remain), Tatar калу (qalu, to remain), Turkmen gālmak (to remain), Tuvan калыр (kalır, to remain, stay), Uyghur قالماق (qalmaq, to remain), Uzbek qolmoq (to remain, stay), Yakut хаал (xaal, to remain, stay).


kalmak (third-person singular simple present kalır)

  1. (intransitive) to remain, be left; to be left over
  2. (intransitive) to come to a halt, reach a standstill
  3. (intransitive) to wait, stay, camp
  4. (intransitive) to spoil, go bad, sour
  5. (intransitive, with ablative case) to fail (a class), flunk
  6. (intransitive, with dative case) to be postponed to
  7. (intransitive, with locative case) to be covered with
  8. (intransitive, auxiliary) Expresses continuous action when used with verbal adverbs (those with -a, -e, -ıp, -ip, -up, -üp)



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  1. ^ Starostin, Sergei; Dybo, Anna; Mudrak, Oleg (2003), “*Kiāl-”, in Etymological dictionary of the Altaic languages (Handbuch der Orientalistik; VIII.8), Leiden, New York, Köln: E.J. Brill