Definition from Wiktionary, the free dictionary
See also: Appendix:Variations of "es"
- 1 English
- 2 Dutch
- 3 Esperanto
- 4 German
- 5 Hungarian
- 6 Latin
- 7 Old English
- 8 Portuguese
- 9 Spanish
- 10 Swedish
- 11 Welsh
- Used to form the regular plural of nouns
- that end in "(t)ch" (only when pronounced as [tʃ]) — glitch → glitches (but psych → psychs)
- that end in "(j)j" — hajj → hajjes
- that end in "(s)s" — bus → buses
- that end in "x" — box → boxes
- that end in "(z)z" — waltz → waltzes
- that end in "o" (in some cases) — tomato → tomatoes (but soprano → sopranos)
- that end in "sh" — ash → ashes
- Used to form the third person singular present of verbs
- Creates the female form of persons or occupations, as English -ess.
- ^ A. van Loey, "Schönfeld's Historische Grammatica van het Nederlands", Zutphen, 8. druk, 1970, ISBN 90-03-21170-1; § 180
- belonging to. (Ending for genitive correlatives.)
Terms derived from -es
- Alternative form of . Used to form the genitive of many nouns.
- (adjective suffix) Added to a noun to form an adjective meaning "having something, a quality".
- (noun suffix) Added to a noun to form an occupation or a collective noun.
- (number suffix) Added to an ordinal number to form a digit or figure.
- (all senses) Harmonic variants:
- -s is added to words ending in a vowel. Final -a changes to -á-. Final -e changes to -é-.
- -os is added to some back vowel words ending in a consonant
- -as is added to other back vowel words ending in a consonant
- -es is added to unrounded front vowel words ending in a consonant
- -ös is added to rounded front vowel words ending in a consonant
- used to form a third-declension feminine abstract noun designating the result of an action from a verb root or conceived root form
Third declension i-stem.
Further forms are nom.sg. -is (e.g. caedis, sedis) and gen.pl. -um (e.g. caedum, sedum).
- Possessive marker, indicating than an object belongs to the noun
- Used in formation of adverbs, originally from the genitive of masculine and neuter nouns, but later added also to feminine nouns by analogy
- forms the 2nd-person singular present indicative of 2nd and 3rd conjugation verbs
- forms the 2nd-person singular present subjunctive of 1st conjugation verbs
- forms the 2nd-person singular negative imperative of 1st conjugation verbs
- forms the plural of nouns and adjectives ending in -r, -z, stressed -s and of some ending in -n
Compare Spanish -ez.
- (historical) -son (a suffix added to a given name to form a patronymic surname)
- Suffix indicating the plural of nouns and adjectives ending in certain consonants (most often -l, -r, -n, -d, -z, -j, -s, -x, -ch, with some exceptions).
- Suffix indicating the second-person singular present indicative of -er and -ir verbs.
- Suffix indicating the second-person singular present subjunctive of -ar verbs
- Rules for pluralizing nouns and adjectives in Spanish (Royal Academy's Diccionario de dudas, en español)
- Suffix used for marking the passive voice of verbs. This variant is used for the present passive of those verbs of the second and fourth conjugations (weak and strong -er verbs respectively) that have stems ending in s. Other verbs normally take only -s. However, until the middle decades of the 20th century (approximately) it was rule to use -es with all -er verbs, which today is considered archaic. This use may occasionally appear in more modern texts (certain phrases). läsa (“to read”) → läses (“is read”), låsa (“to lock”) → låses (“is locked”)
- -ese; making a nationality from the name of a country
- Used to form nouns meaning the female equivalent of.