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Alternative forms[edit]


Inherited from Latin -ēnsis (compare Occitan -és, Portuguese -ês, French -ais, Spanish -és, Italian -ese).



-ès (adjective-forming suffix, feminine -esa, masculine plural -esos, feminine plural -eses)

  1. -ese; forms an adjective with the meaning of “pertinent thereto”


-ès m (noun-forming suffix, plural -esos, feminine -esa)

  1. -ese; forms a noun with the meaning of “an inhabitant thereof”


-ès m (noun-forming suffix, uncountable)

  1. -ese; forms a proper noun with the meaning of “the language used by the inhabitants thereof”

Usage notes[edit]

  • Unlike English, where the capitalization of the proper noun is retained when a suffix is added, in Catalan, when this suffix is used with a place name, the capitalization is dropped, even when forming a language name that is itself a proper noun. Hence Irlanda (Ireland) + -ès yields irlandès not *Irlandès.

Derived terms[edit]