Definition from Wiktionary, the free dictionary
Jump to navigation Jump to search
U+7684, 的
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-7684

[U+7683]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+7685]

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
8 strokes
Stroke order
的-order.gif

Han character[edit]

(radical 106, +3, 8 strokes, cangjie input 竹日心戈 (HAPI), four-corner 27620, composition)

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 786, character 7
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 22692
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1201, character 9
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 4, page 2644, character 16
  • Unihan data for U+7684

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
的-seal.svg 的-bigseal.svg
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*preːwɢs
*preːwɢs, *preːwɢ
*breːw, *b·reːwɢs
*ʔreːwɢs, *ʔreːwɢ
*plew, *pʰlew, *bljewɢ, *pleːwɢ
*ʔlewɢs, *ʔlewɢ
*pleːwʔ, *pleːwɢ
*pleːwɢs
*teːwɢs
*ɡleːwʔ, *spʰlewɢ, *pl'ewɢ, *bljewɢ, *pleːwɢ
*pljewɢ
*pljewɢ
*pljewɢ, *bljewɢ
*pljewɢ
*pljewɢ
*pljewɢ, *bljewɢ
*bljewɢ, *sbreːwɢ
*bljewɢ
*qlewɢ, *qreːwɢ
礿 *lewɢ
*preːwɢ, *pleːwɢ
*breːwɢ
*pleːwɢ
*pleːwɢ
*pleːwɢ
*pleːwɢ
*pleːwɢ

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *pleːwɢ): semantic  (white) + phonetic  (OC *pljewɢ, *bljewɢ).

The original form was with the meaning of “bright”, hence the initial semantic. See Etymology 1 below.

Etymology 1[edit]

“Bright”. Compare .

The sense of “mark in a target” may be secondary. Alternatively, it may be an independent root on its own. Compare Tibetan རྟགས (rtags, mark, sign).

Pronunciation[edit]


Note:
  • dì - “bright; target”;
  • dí - “true; truly”.
  • Cantonese
  • Gan
  • Hakka
  • Jin
  • Min Dong
  • Min Nan
  • Wu
  • Xiang

  • Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (5)
    Final () (127)
    Tone (調) Checked (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () IV
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /tek̚/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /tek̚/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /tɛk̚/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /tɛjk̚/
    Li
    Rong
    /tek̚/
    Wang
    Li
    /tiek̚/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /tiek̚/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    di
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ tek ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*[t-l]ˤewk/
    English bright; mark in a target

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 11210
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    2
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*pleːwɢ/

    Definitions[edit]

    1. bright; clear; distinct
      alt. forms: ancient
    2. white; white-coloured
    3. white forehead of horses; white-foreheaded horse
    4. centre of target for archery
    5. aim; standard; criterion
    6. target; objective
        ―    ―  purpose, aim, goal
    7. (historical) red dot worn on the centre of the forehead by women; bindu
      alt. forms: ancient
    8. Alternative form of (, “lotus seed”).
    9. true; real
    10. really; truly; certainly
      /   ―  què  ―  truly

    Compounds[edit]

    Etymology 2[edit]

    This glyph was borrowed later to represent de, the possessive marker in Northern Chinese, which resulted from the lenition of the literary possessive marker (OC *tjɯ). Superseded the earlier for this meaning. is still preserved in many phrases, and in written languages to some extent, especially in Taiwan.

    Cognate with the particle sense of and , which are all homophonic but now have their respective specialised usages.

    Compare the stylized Zhuyin variant of in Taiwan: .

    In contemporary times it is also used to represent unrelated equivalent particles in other Chinese varieties. Examples include Min Nan ê (, , or , derived from ), Min Dong (), Wu geq () and Cantonese ge3 ( < ).

    Languages in the East Asian Sprachbund share a common possessive structure; compare Japanese (no), Korean (ui), Tibetan གི (gi).

    Pronunciation[edit]


    Note: di - in poetry, songs, slangs.
    Note: chiefly in formal writing.
    Note: chiefly in formal writing.
    Note: Etymologically unrelated.
    Note:
    • ê and --ê - etymologically unrelated. --ê is the generic classifier and ê is the possessive particle (pronunciations different).;
    • tek/tiak - literary (only in formal writing);
    • tit - vernacular (only in formal writing).
    Note: only in formal writing.

    Definitions[edit]

    (chiefly Mandarin, Jin, Xiang)

    1. Used after an attribute. Indicates that the previous word has possession of the next one. It functions like ’s in English (or like the word “of” but with the position of possessor and possessee switched). ’s; of
      /   ―  de shū  ―  my book
      alt. forms: dated
    2. Used to link a noun, an adjective or a phrase to a noun to describe it. that; who
      紅色氣球 / 红色气球  ―  hóngsè de qìqiú  ―  a red balloon
      alt. forms: obsolete
    3. Used to form a noun phrase or nominal expression.
      alt. forms: obsolete
    4. Used after a verb or between a verb and its object to stress an element of the sentence. It can be used with (shì) to surround the stressed element.
    5. Used at the end of a declarative sentence for emphasis.
    6. Used to express the idea of “of that kind”.
    7. (informal) Used to express multiplication or addition. and, by
    Synonyms[edit]
    Dialectal synonyms of (“possessive particle”) [map]
    Variety Location Words
    Classical Chinese
    Formal (Written Standard Chinese)
    Mandarin Beijing
    Taiwan
    Malaysia
    Singapore
    Cantonese Guangzhou
    Hong Kong
    Taishan
    Gan Nanchang
    Hakka Meixian
    Miaoli (N. Sixian)
    Liudui (S. Sixian)
    Hsinchu (Hailu)
    Dongshi (Dabu)
    Zhuolan (Raoping)
    Yunlin (Zhao'an)
    Jin Taiyuan
    Min Dong Fuzhou
    Min Nan Xiamen
    Chaozhou
    Shantou
    Wu Shanghai
    Wenzhou
    Xiang Changsha
    Usage notes[edit]

    Compounds[edit]

    Descendants[edit]

    Etymology 3[edit]

    Phonetic syllable used to transcribe certain syllables in foreign loanwords.

    Pronunciation[edit]


    Note: dī - Chinese Mainland pronunciation, used in “的士” and related words.

    Definitions[edit]

    1. (used only as a phonetic element)
      的士  ―  shì/shì  ―  taxi
      黎波里  ―  líbōlǐ  ―  Tripoli
    2. Short for 的士 (dīshì, “taxi”).
        ―    ―  to take/hire a taxi

    Compounds[edit]


    Japanese[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    (grade 4 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    Readings[edit]

    Etymology 1[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    てき
    Grade: 4
    on’yomi

    Repurposed from the target meaning, probably from Ming- and Qing-era Mandarin use of this character as a possessive or adjectivizing particle,[1] or even earlier in the Song and Yuan eras.[2][3] Probably also influenced in the Meiji period by the English adjective ending -tic (as in spastic, plastic, or characteristic), ultimately deriving from Ancient Greek -τικός (-tikós), used to form adjectives from verbs.[1][2][4][3]

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Suffix[edit]

    (hiragana てき, rōmaji -teki)

    1. -ive, -like, -ish, -ic, -ical, -y, kind of, sort of
      Used to form 形容動詞 (keiyō dōshi, na adjectives) from nouns. The resulting term has a 平板型 (heiban-gata, flat type) or type 0 pitch accent pattern.
      中国 (ちゅうごく) (ふん) () ()中国 (ちゅうごく) (てき) (ふん) () ()
      Chūgoku no fun'iki, Chūgoku-teki na fun'iki
      China's atmosphere, a Chinese kind of atmosphere

    Etymology 2[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    てき
    Grade: 4
    on’yomi

    From Middle Chinese (tek, literally “mark in a target”, also meaning “bright”).

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Affix[edit]

    (hiragana てき, rōmaji teki)

    1. target
    2. bright, clear
    Derived terms[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana てき, rōmaji teki)

    1. Alternative spelling of : (rare) enemy, opponent
    Alternative forms[edit]

    Pronoun[edit]

    (hiragana てき, rōmaji teki)

    1. (archaic, chiefly Kansai, somewhat derogatory) he, she, it, that one
    2. (archaic, chiefly Kansai, somewhat derogatory) you
    Alternative forms[edit]
    Synonyms[edit]
    • (derogatory for “he, she, it”): あいつ (aitsu)
    • (derogatory for “you”): おまえ (omae)

    Etymology 3[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    まと
    Grade: 4
    kun’yomi

    From Old Japanese. Possibly originally a compound of (ma, eye) +‎ (to, place). Appears to be cognate with homophone (mato, round, adjective, obsolete in modern Japanese).[1]

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana まと, rōmaji mato)

    1. a target, a mark, a bullseye
    2. an objective, an object (of doing something)
    Synonyms[edit]

    Etymology 4[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    いくは
    Grade: 4
    kun’yomi

    From Old Japanese.

    • May be derived from rare archaic verb いくう (ikuu, to shoot [an arrow] at something, archaic spelling いくふ).[1]
    The ha element would presumably derive from the verb ending (fu), which has a 未然形 (mizenkei, incomplete form) of ha. However, this is unlikely, as verb forms ending in -fu underwent the regular f- and h- > w- shift, which would result in a reading of *ikuwa rather than the correct ikuha.
    • The above phonetic discrepancy suggests that ikuha may instead be a compound of iku + ha. The iku element probably derives from root component いく (iku) meaning “shooting [arrows]”, as found in いくう (ikuu) and also in (ikusa, a battle, original meaning “the shooting of arrows”).[1] The iku element might be related to verb 射る (iru, to shoot an arrow), or obsolete verb 生く (iku, to live; to make something live, to make something go), likely cognate with 行く (iku, to go).
    The ha element is uncertain. It might be (ha, the edge or end of something), from the sense “the end [of the arrow's flight]”.

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana いくは, rōmaji ikuha)

    1. (archery, rare) an archery target
    Derived terms[edit]

    Etymology 5[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    ゆくは
    Grade: 4
    kun’yomi

    From Old Japanese. Alteration of ikuha above. Compare the iku <> yuku alteration in the verb 行く (iku, yuku, to go).

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana ゆくは, rōmaji yukuha)

    1. (archery, rare) an archery target

    References[edit]

    1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
    2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
    3. 3.0 3.1 1997, 新明解国語辞典 (Shin Meikai Kokugo Jiten), Fifth Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
    4. ^ 1995, 大辞泉 (Daijisen) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan, →ISBN

    Korean[edit]

    Hanja[edit]

    (jeok) (hangeul , McCune–Reischauer chŏk, Yale cek)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    Vietnamese[edit]

    Han character[edit]

    (đích, đét, đít, điếc, đếch)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.