Definition from Wiktionary, the free dictionary
Jump to: navigation, search
U+7684, 的
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-7684

[U+7683]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+7685]

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
的-bw.png
Stroke order
的-order.gif

Han character[edit]

(radical 106 +3, 8 strokes, cangjie input 竹日心戈 (HAPI), four-corner 27620, composition)

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 786, character 7
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 22692
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1201, character 9
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 4, page 2644, character 16
  • Unihan data for U+7684

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Large seal script
的-bigseal.svg
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*preːwɢs
*preːwɢs, *preːwɢ
*breːw, *b·reːwɢs
*ʔreːwɢs, *ʔreːwɢ
*plew, *pʰlew, *bljewɢ, *pleːwɢ
*ʔlewɢs, *ʔlewɢ
*pleːwʔ, *pleːwɢ
*pleːwɢs
*teːwɢs
*ɡleːwʔ, *spʰlewɢ, *pl'ewɢ, *bljewɢ, *pleːwɢ
*pljewɢ
*pljewɢ
*pljewɢ, *bljewɢ
*pljewɢ
*pljewɢ
*pljewɢ, *bljewɢ
*bljewɢ, *sbreːwɢ
*bljewɢ
*qlewɢ, *qreːwɢ
礿 *lewɢ
*preːwɢ, *pleːwɢ
*breːwɢ
*pleːwɢ
*pleːwɢ
*pleːwɢ
*pleːwɢ
*pleːwɢ

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *pleːwɢ): semantic (white) + phonetic (OC *pljewɢ, *bljewɢ).

The original form was with the meaning of “bright”, hence the initial semantic. See Etymology 1 below.

Etymology 1[edit]

“Bright”. Compare and .

The sense of “mark in a target” may be secondary. Alternatively, it may be an independent root on its own. Compare Tibetan རྟགས(rtags, mark, sign).

Pronunciation[edit]


Note:
  • dì - "bright;
  • target";
  • dí - "true, truly".

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (5)
Final () (127)
Tone (調) Checked (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () IV
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/tek̚/
Pan
Wuyun
/tek̚/
Shao
Rongfen
/tɛk̚/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/tɛjk̚/
Li
Rong
/tek̚/
Wang
Li
/tiek̚/
Bernard
Karlgren
/tiek̚/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
di
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle
Chinese
‹ tek ›
Old
Chinese
/*[t-l]ˤewk/
English bright; mark in a target

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 11210
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
2
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*pleːwɢ/

Definitions[edit]

  1. bright; clear; distinct
  2. white; white-coloured
  3. white forehead of horses; white-foreheaded horse
  4. centre of target for archery
  5. aim; standard; criterion
  6. target; objective
      ―    ―  purpose, aim, goal
  7. (historical) red dot worn on the centre of the forehead by women; bindu
  8. true, real
  9. really; truly; certainly
    /   ―  què  ―  truly

Etymology 2[edit]

This glyph was borrowed later to represent de, the possessive marker in Northern Chinese, which resulted from the lenition of the literary possessive marker (OC *tjɯ). Superseded the earlier for this meaning. is still preserved in many phrases, and in written languages to some extent, especially in Taiwan.

Cognate with the particle sense of and , which are all homophonic but now have their respective specialised usages.

Compare the stylish Zhuyin variant of in Taiwan: .

In contemporary times it is also used to represent unrelated equivalent particles in other Chinese varieties. Examples include Min Nan ê (, , or , derived from ), Min Dong (), Wu geq () and Cantonese ge3 ( < ).

Languages in the East Asian Sprachbund share a common possessive structure; compare Japanese (no), Korean (ui), Tibetan གི(gi).

Pronunciation[edit]


Note: di - in poetry, songs.
Note: only in formal writing, vernacular particle = (ge3).
Note: Etymologically unrelated.
Note:
  • ê - etymologically unrelated;
  • tek/tiak - literary (only in formal writing);
  • tit - vernacular (only in formal writing).
Note: only in formal writing, vernacular particle = (gai7).

Definitions[edit]

(Mandarin, Jin, Xiang)

  1. Used after an attribute. Indicates that the previous word has possession of the next one. In English it functions like ’s (or like the word “of” but with the position of possessor and possessee switched). ’s; of
    /   ―  de shū  ―  my book
  2. Used to link a noun, an adjective or a phrase to a noun to describe it. that; who
    紅色氣球 / 红色气球  ―  hóngsè de qìqiú  ―  a red balloon
  3. Used to form a noun phrase or nominal expression.
  4. Used after a verb or between a verb and its object to stress an element of the sentence. It can be used with (shì) to surround the stressed element.
  5. Used at the end of a declarative sentence for emphasis.
  6. Used to express the idea of “of that kind”.
  7. (informal) Used to express multiplication or addition. and, by
Synonyms[edit]
Dialectal synonyms of (“possessive particle”)
Variety Location Words
Classical Chinese
Formal (Written Standard Chinese)
Mandarin Beijing
Taiwan
Malaysia
Singapore
Cantonese Guangzhou
Hong Kong
Taishan
Gan Nanchang
Hakka Meixian
Miaoli (N. Sixian)
Liudui (S. Sixian)
Hsinchu (Hailu)
Dongshi (Dabu)
Zhuolan (Raoping)
Yunlin (Zhao'an)
Jin Taiyuan
Min Dong Fuzhou
Min Nan Xiamen
Chaozhou
Shantou
Wu Shanghai
Wenzhou
Xiang Changsha
Usage notes[edit]
Descendants[edit]

Etymology 3[edit]

Phonetic syllable used to transcribe certain syllables in foreign loanwords.

Pronunciation[edit]

Definitions[edit]

  1. (used only as a phonetic element)
      ―  shì  ―  taxi
    黎波里  ―  líbōlǐ  ―  Tripoli
      ―    ―  to take/hire a taxi

Compounds[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(grade 4 “Kyōiku” kanji)

Readings[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Kanji in this term
てき
Grade: 4
on'yomi

Repurposed from the target meaning, probably from Ming- and Qing-era Mandarin use of this character as a possessive or adjectivizing particle,[1] or even earlier in the Song and Yuan eras.[2][3] Probably also influenced in the Meiji period by the English adjective ending -tic (as in spastic, plastic, or characteristic), ultimately deriving from Ancient Greek -τικός(-tikós), used to form adjectives from verbs.[1][2][4][3]

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

‎(hiragana てき, romaji -teki)

  1. -ive, -like, -ish, -ic, -ical, -y, kind of, sort of
    Used to form 形容動詞(keiyō dōshi, na adjectives) from nouns. The resulting term has a 平板型(heiban-gata, flat type) or type 0 pitch accent pattern.
    中国 (ちゅうごく)雰囲気 (ふんいき)中国 (ちゅうごく) (てき)雰囲気 (ふんいき)
    Chūgoku no fun'iki, Chūgoku-teki na fun'iki
    China's atmosphere, a Chinese kind of atmosphere

Etymology 2[edit]

Kanji in this term
てき
Grade: 4
on'yomi

From Middle Chinese (tek, literally “mark in a target”, also meaning “bright”).

Pronunciation[edit]

Affix[edit]

‎(hiragana てき, romaji teki)

  1. target
  2. bright, clear
Derived terms[edit]

Noun[edit]

‎(hiragana てき, romaji teki)

  1. Alternative spelling of : (rare) enemy, opponent
Alternative forms[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

‎(hiragana てき, romaji teki)

  1. (archaic, chiefly Kansai, somewhat derogatory) he, she, it, that one
  2. (archaic, chiefly Kansai, somewhat derogatory) you
Alternative forms[edit]
Synonyms[edit]
  • (derogatory for “he, she, it”): あいつ(aitsu)
  • (derogatory for “you”): おまえ(omae)

Etymology 3[edit]

Kanji in this term
まと
Grade: 4
kun'yomi

From Old Japanese. Possibly originally a compound of (ma, eye) +‎ (to, place). Appears to be cognate with homophone (mato, round, adjective, obsolete in modern Japanese).[1]

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

‎(hiragana まと, romaji mato)

  1. a target, a mark, a bullseye
  2. an objective, an object (of doing something)
Synonyms[edit]

Etymology 4[edit]

Kanji in this term
いくは
Grade: 4
kun'yomi

From Old Japanese.

  • May be derived from rare archaic verb いくう(ikuu, to shoot [an arrow] at something, archaic spelling いくふ).[1]
The ha element would presumably derive from the verb ending (fu), which has a 未然形(mizenkei, incomplete form) of ha. However, this is unlikely, as verb forms ending in -fu underwent the regular f- and h- > w- shift, which would result in a reading of *ikuwa rather than the correct ikuha.
  • The above phonetic discrepancy suggests that ikuha may instead be a compound of iku + ha. The iku element probably derives from root component いく(iku) meaning “shooting [arrows]”, as found in いくう(ikuu) and also in (ikusa, a battle, original meaning “the shooting of arrows”).[1] The iku element might be related to verb 射る(iru, to shoot an arrow), or obsolete verb 生く(iku, to live; to make something live, to make something go), likely cognate with 行く(iku, to go).
The ha element is uncertain. It might be (ha, the edge or end of something), from the sense “the end [of the arrow's flight]”.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

‎(hiragana いくは, romaji ikuha)

  1. (archery, rare) an archery target
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 5[edit]

Kanji in this term
ゆくは
Grade: 4
kun'yomi

From Old Japanese. Alteration of ikuha above. Compare the iku <> yuku alteration in the verb 行く(iku, yuku, to go).

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

‎(hiragana ゆくは, romaji yukuha)

  1. (archery, rare) an archery target

References[edit]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, ISBN 4-385-13905-9
  3. 3.0 3.1 1997, 新明解国語辞典 (Shin Meikai Kokugo Jiten), Fifth Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, ISBN 4-385-13143-0
  4. ^ 1995, 大辞泉 (Daijisen) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan, ISBN 4-09-501211-0

Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

‎(jeok) (hangeul , McCune-Reischauer chŏk, Yale cek)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(đích, đét, đít, điếc, đếch)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.