Definition from Wiktionary, the free dictionary
Jump to: navigation, search

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
的-bw.png
Stroke order
的-order.gif

Etymology[edit]

Phono-semantic compound (形聲): semantic  (white) + phonetic 

的 and 勺 had roughly similar pronunciations in Old Chinese; Baxter-Sagart reconstruct 的 as *t-lˤewk, compared with 勺 *m-t-qewk. (The m- and t- here are prefixes.)

The original meaning was "bright," hence the 白 semantic.

的-bigseal.svg
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Large seal script Small seal script

Han character[edit]

(radical 106 +3, 8 strokes, cangjie input 竹日心戈 (HAPI), four-corner 27620, composition)

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 786, character 7
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 22692
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1201, character 9
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 4, page 2644, character 16
  • Unihan data for U+7684

Chinese[edit]

-
simp. and trad.

Pronunciation[edit]


Middle Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Character (的), Pronunciation 1/1

Initial: 端 (5)
Final: 錫
Division: IV

Openness: Open
Tone: Checked (Ø)

Fanqie: 都歷切
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Bernard
Karlgren
Li
Rong
Pan
Wuyun
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Wang
Li
Shao
Rongfen
/tek̚/ /tiek̚/ /tek̚/ /tek̚/ /tɛjk̚/ /tiek̚/ /tɛk̚/
Old Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character Modern Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle Chinese Old Chinese English
‹ tek › /*[t-l]ˤewk/ bright; mark in a target

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

  • Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
  • Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
  • Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
  • Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;
  • Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character No. Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
Corresponding
MC rime
Old Chinese Notes
11210 2 /*pleːwɢ/

Definitions[edit]

  1. (Beginning Mandarin) Used after an attribute. Indicates that the previous word has possession of the next one. In English it functions like ’s (or like the word “of” but with the position of possessor and possessee switched.) ’s , of
    [MSC, trad.]
    [MSC, simp.]
    Zhè shì wǒ de shū. [Pinyin]
    This is my book.
    [MSC, trad.]
    [MSC, simp.]
    Zhè běn shū shì lǎo Wáng de. [Pinyin]
    This book belong to Wang / This is Wang's book
    今天開會主席 [MSC, trad.]
    今天开会主席 [MSC, simp.]
    Jīntiān kāihuì shì nǐ de zhǔxí. [Pinyin]
    You will chair today's meeting.
    玩笑 [MSC, trad.]
    玩笑 [MSC, simp.]
    Bié kāi tā de wánxiào le. [Pinyin]
    Don't make fun of him.
      ―  shé de  ―  the snake’s poison
    眾人國家 / 众人国家  ―  zhòngrén de guójiā  ―  the People’s Country
  2. (used to link an noun, an adjective or a phrase to a noun to describe it) that, who
    紅色氣球 / 红色气球  ―  hóngsè de qìqiú  ―  a red balloon
    紀律 / 纪律  ―  tiě de jìlǜ  ―  iron discipline
    北京火车  ―  qù běijīng de huǒchē  ―  The train that goes to Beijing
    昨天 / 昨天  ―  zuótiān lái de rén  ―  The people who came yesterday
  3. (used to form a noun phrase or nominal expression)
    [MSC, trad.]
    [MSC, simp.]
    Wǒ ài chī là de. [Pinyin]
    I like hot (or peppery) food.
    菊花 [MSC, trad.]
    菊花 [MSC, simp.]
    Júhuā kāi le, yǒu hóng de, yǒu huáng de. [Pinyin]
    The chrysanthemums are in bloom; some are red and some yellow.
    [MSC, trad.]
    [MSC, simp.]
    Tā shuō tā de, wǒ gàn wǒ de. [Pinyin]
    Let him say what he likes; I'll just get on with my work.
    火車聊天聊天 [MSC, trad.]
    火车聊天聊天 [MSC, simp.]
    Huǒchē shàng kàn shū de kàn shū, liáotiān de liáotiān. [Pinyin]
    On the train some people were reading and some were chatting.
    [MSC, trad.]
    [MSC, simp.]
    Wǒ yào liǎng ge sān máo de. [Pinyin]
    I want two of the three-mao ones. (i.e. two items worth three mao each)
    無緣無故什麼 [MSC, trad.]
    无缘无故什么 [MSC, simp.]
    Wúyuánwúgù de nǐ, zhù shénme jí? [Pinyin]
    Why do you get excited for no reason at all?
    這裡只管 [MSC, trad.]
    这里只管 [MSC, simp.]
    Zhèlǐ yòng bù zháo nǐ, nǐ zhǐguǎn shuì nǐ de qù. [Pinyin]
    We don't need you here. Just go to bed.
  4. (used after a verb or between a verb and its object to stress an element of the sentence. it can be used with to surround the stressed element)
    [MSC, trad.]
    [MSC, simp.]
    Shéi mǎi de? [Pinyin]
    Who bought it?
    嗓子怎麼?—— [MSC, trad.]
    嗓子怎么?—— [MSC, simp.]
    Nǐ sǎngzǐ zěnme yǎ le? - - chàng de. [Pinyin]
    Why are you so hoarse? —From singing.
    稿子 [MSC, trad. and simp.]
    Shì wǒ dǎ de gǎozi, tā shàng de sè. [Pinyin]
    I made the sketch; he filled in the colours. (It was me who drew the sketch)
    昨天 [MSC, trad.]
    昨天 [MSC, simp.]
    Tā shì zuótiān jìn de chéng. [Pinyin]
    He went to town yesterday. (It's yesterday that he went to town)
    車站 [MSC, trad.]
    车站 [MSC, simp.]
    Wǒ shì zài chēzhàn dǎ de piào. [Pinyin]
    I bought the ticket at the station. (It's in the station that I bought the ticket)
  5. (used at the end of a declarative sentence for emphasis)
    你們辛苦 [MSC, trad.]
    你们辛苦 [MSC, simp.]
    Nǐmen zhè liǎng tiān zhēn gòu xīnkǔ de. [Pinyin]
    You've really been working hard the past few days.
  6. (used to express the idea of “of that kind”)
    針頭線腦 / 针头线脑  ―  zhēntóuxiànnǎo de  ―  things such as needles and threads
  7. (informal) (used to express multiplication or addition) and, by
    屋子十五平方米 [MSC, trad.]
    屋子十五平方米 [MSC, simp.]
    Zhè jiān wūzǐ shì wǔ mǐ de sān mǐ, hé shíwǔ píngfāngmǐ. [Pinyin]
    This room is five metres by three, or fifteen square metres.
    一共 [MSC, trad.]
    一共 [MSC, simp.]
    Liǎng ge de sān ge, yīgòng wǔ ge. [Pinyin]
    Two pieces and three pieces—there're five in all.
Usage notes[edit]
  • (possession particle): 的 must be omitted when it refers to a close relationship (family, close friends) or to an institutional or organizational relationship (school, work).
    媽媽 / 妈妈  ―  zhè shì wǒ māma  ―  This is my mother
    我們學校 / 我们学校  ―  zhè shì wǒmen xuéxiào  ―  This is our school
  • (particle linking a noun and an adjective): 的 is omitted if it is used with a single-syllable adjective.
    /   ―  huài rén  ―  bad person
  • It must be used when the adjective has more than one syllable or if the adjective is qualified by an adverb.
    奇怪  ―  qíguài de rén  ―  strange person
      ―  hěn hǎo de chá  ―  a very good tea
  • 的 is also omitted when the association is frequent
    中國 / 中国  ―  zhōngguó rén  ―  Chinese people
  • The particle 的 is referred to as to differentiate it from (/) and ().
Synonyms[edit]
  • (classical or in set expressions) (zhī)
  • (obsolete or dialectal possessive particle)
  • (Cantonese)
  • (Wu)
Derived terms[edit]
See also[edit]
  • (homophones when used as particles, often mistakenly used interchangeably) ,
  • (Japanese attributive, possessive particle) (no)
  • (Korean attributive, possessive particle) (ui)

Pronunciation[edit]


Definitions[edit]

  1. really; truly
Derived terms[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]


Definitions[edit]

  1. target; objective
      ―    ―  purpose, aim, goal

Pronunciation[edit]

Syllable[edit]

  1. (used only as a phonetic element)
      ―  shì  ―  taxi
    黎波里  ―  líbōlǐ  ―  Tripoli
      ―    ―  to take/hire a taxi

References[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(grade 4 “Kyōiku” kanji)

Readings[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Kanji in this term
てき
Grade: 4
on'yomi

Repurposed from the target meaning, probably from Ming- and Qing-era Mandarin use of this character as a possessive or adjectivizing particle. Possibly also influenced in the Meiji period by the English adjective ending -tic (as in spastic, plastic, or characteristic), ultimately deriving from Ancient Greek -τικός (-tikós), used to form adjectives from verbs.

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

(hiragana てき, romaji -teki)

  1. -ive, -like, -ish, -ic, -ical, -y, kind of, sort of
    Used to form 形容動詞 (keiyō dōshi, na adjectives) from nouns. The resulting term has a 平板型 (heiban-gata, flat type) or type 0 pitch accent pattern.
    中国 (ちゅうごく)雰囲気 (ふんいき)中国 (ちゅうごく) (てき)雰囲気 (ふんいき)
    Chūgoku no fun'iki, Chūgoku-teki na fun'iki
    China's atmosphere, a Chinese kind of atmosphere

Etymology 2[edit]

Kanji in this term
てき
Grade: 4
on'yomi

From Middle Chinese (tek, literally “mark in a target”, also meaning “bright”).

Pronunciation[edit]

Affix[edit]

(hiragana てき, romaji teki)

  1. target
  2. bright, clear
Derived terms[edit]

Noun[edit]

(hiragana てき, romaji teki)

  1. Alternative spelling of : (rare) enemy, opponent
Alternative forms[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

(hiragana てき, romaji teki)

  1. (archaic, chiefly Kansai, somewhat derogatory) he, she, it, that one
  2. (archaic, chiefly Kansai, somewhat derogatory) you
Alternative forms[edit]
Synonyms[edit]
  • (derogatory for “he, she, it”): あいつ (aitsu)
  • (derogatory for “you”): おまえ (omae)

Etymology 3[edit]

Kanji in this term
まと
Grade: 4
kun'yomi

From Old Japanese. Possibly originally a compound of (ma, eye) +‎ (to, place). Appears to be cognate with homophone (mato, round, adjective, obsolete in modern Japanese).[2]

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

(hiragana まと, romaji mato)

  1. a target, a mark, a bullseye
  2. an objective, an object (of doing something)
Synonyms[edit]

Etymology 4[edit]

Kanji in this term
いくは
Grade: 4
kun'yomi

From Old Japanese.

  • May be derived from rare archaic verb いくう (ikuu, to shoot [an arrow] at something, archaic spelling いくふ).[2]
The ha element would presumably derive from the verb ending (fu), which has a 未然形 (mizenkei, incomplete form) of ha. However, this is unlikely, as verb forms ending in -fu underwent the regular f- and h- > w- shift, which would result in a reading of *ikuwa rather than the correct ikuha.
  • The above phonetic discrepancy suggests that ikuha may instead be a compound of iku + ha. The iku element probably derives from root component いく (iku) meaning “shooting [arrows]”, as found in いくう (ikuu) and also in (ikusa, a battle, original meaning “the shooting of arrows”).[2] The iku element might be related to verb 射る (iru, to shoot an arrow), or obsolete verb 生く (iku, to live; to make something live, to make something go), likely cognate with 行く (iku, to go).
The ha element is uncertain. It might be (ha, the edge or end of something), from the sense “the end [of the arrow's flight]”.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

(hiragana いくは, romaji ikuha)

  1. (archery, rare) an archery target
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 5[edit]

Kanji in this term
ゆくは
Grade: 4
kun'yomi

From Old Japanese. Alteration of ikuha above. Compare the iku <> yuku alteration in the verb 行く (iku, yuku, to go).

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

(hiragana ゆくは, romaji yukuha)

  1. (archery, rare) an archery target

References[edit]

  1. 1.0 1.1 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, ISBN 4-385-13905-9
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan

Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

(jeok) (hangeul , McCune-Reischauer chŏk, Yale cek)

  1. This entry needs a definition. Please add one, then remove {{defn}}.

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(đích, đét, đít, điếc, đếch)

  1. This entry needs a definition. Please add one, then remove {{defn}}.