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U+6BD2, 毒
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-6BD2

[U+6BD1]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+6BD3]

Translingual[edit]

Traditional
Simplified
Japanese
Korean

Han character[edit]

(Kangxi radical 80, +4, 8 strokes in traditional Chinese and Japanese, 9 strokes in simplified Chinese, cangjie input 手一田卜戈 (QMWYI), four-corner 50507, composition (GKV) or (HTJ))

Derived characters[edit]

References[edit]

  • Kangxi Dictionary: page 589, character 6
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 16730
  • Dae Jaweon: page 981, character 8
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 4, page 2382, character 5
  • Unihan data for U+6BD2

Chinese[edit]

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts

Pictogram (象形) - a woman wearing a feathered ornament - original form of (OC *duːɡs, *duːɡ).

Alternatively, Li Xueqin (2012) proposes it is a phono-semantic compound (形聲形声, OC *l'uːɡ): semantic (vegetation) + phonetic (OC *ʔmɯː, *ʔmɯːʔ), meaning "a type of poisonous plant."

Etymology[edit]

“poison”
From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *duk ~ tuk (poison; to poison). Cognate with Tibetan དུག (dug, poison; toxin), གདུག (gdug), གདུག་པ (gdug pa, vicious; evil; poisonous), Burmese တောက် (tauk, to suffer from toxicity; to be ill; to be poisonous).
“to poison” (Pronunciation 2)
A departing tone variant, meaning “to poison”, is preserved in southern varieties, including Cantonese, Hakka, Min, southern Gan, and southern Wu. It is derived from the sense “poison” with the *–s suffix in Old Chinese.
“nerdy”
Derived from 毒撚.

Pronunciation 1[edit]

trad.
simp. #
alternative forms


Note: duk1 - only used in the phonetic transcription 身毒 (“India”).
Note:
  • dù - literary;
  • tū - vernacular.
  • Min Dong
  • Note:
    • dŭk - literary;
    • dĕ̤k - vernacular.
  • Min Nan
  • Note:
    • to̍k - literary;
    • ta̍k - vernacular.
  • Wu
  • Xiang

  • Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (7)
    Final () (6)
    Tone (調) Checked (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () I
    Fanqie
    Baxter dowk
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /duok̚/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /duok̚/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /dok̚/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /dawk̚/
    Li
    Rong
    /dok̚/
    Wang
    Li
    /duok̚/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /dʱuok̚/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    Expected
    Cantonese
    Reflex
    duk6
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ dowk ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*[d]ˁuk/
    English poison (n.)

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 2486
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    1
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*l'uːɡ/

    Definitions[edit]

    1. poison; toxin; venom; bane
        ―  yǒu  ―  poisonous
    2. calamity; disaster; trouble
    3. pain; suffering
    4. crime; evil
    5. to poison; to administer poison to
      蟑螂  ―  sǐ zhāngláng  ―  to kill cockroaches with poison
    6. to harm; to injure
    7. to hate; to resent
    8. Alternative form of (, to manage; to govern)
    9. poisonous; noxious
        ―  shé  ―  venomous snake
        ―    ―  poisonous gas
    10. heavy; thick
    11. (figurative) pernicious influence; harmful influence
        ―    ―  residual poison
    12. severe; fierce; violent
      外面太陽外面太阳  ―  Wàimiàn de tàiyáng hěn .  ―  The sun outside is very fierce.
    13. malicious; cruel
      心腸心肠  ―  Tā de xīncháng zhēn !  ―  How cruel is he!
    14. (literary, or in compounds) narcotics; narcotic drugs
        ―    ―  to take drugs (of illicit or recreational nature)
        ―  fàn  ―  to traffic in narcotics
    15. (Hong Kong Cantonese) nerdy

    Synonyms[edit]

    Compounds[edit]

    Descendants[edit]

    Sino-Xenic ():
    • Japanese: (どく) (doku)
    • Korean: 독(毒) (dok)
    • Vietnamese: độc ()

    Others:

    • Vietnamese: thuốc (drug)
    • Zhuang: doeg (poison; to poison; evil)

    Pronunciation 2[edit]

    trad.
    simp. #
    alternative forms Cantonese
    Hakka
    Min Dong



    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ dowk ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*m-[d]ˁuk-s/
    English to poison (v.)

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.

    Definitions[edit]

    1. (Cantonese, Hakka, Min, colloquial) to poison; to administer poison to

    Pronunciation 3[edit]

    trad.
    simp. #
    alternative forms 𭖪


    Definitions[edit]

    1. Used in 毒冒, which is an alternative form of 玳瑁 (dàimào)

    References[edit]

    Japanese[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    (grade 4 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    1. poison

    Readings[edit]

    Compounds[edit]


    Kanji in this term
    どく
    Grade: 5
    on’yomi

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (どく) (doku

    1. poison, toxin

    References[edit]

    1. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
    2. ^ 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN

    Korean[edit]

    Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

    Wikisource


    Etymology 1[edit]

    (This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium. Particularly: “Middle Korean readings, if any”)

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Hanja[edit]

    (eumhun (dok dok))

    1. Hanja form? of (poison).

    Compounds[edit]

    Etymology 2[edit]

    Hanja[edit]

    (eumhun 거북 (geobuk dae))

    1. Alternative form of (Hanja form? of (turtle).)
    2. Alternative form of (Hanja form? of (turtle).)

    Vietnamese[edit]

    Han character[edit]

    : Hán Nôm readings: độc, nọc

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.