國家

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Chinese[edit]

country; state; nation
 
home; family; -ist; -er; -ian; measure word for stores and schools
trad. (國家)
simp. (国家)

Pronunciation[edit]


Middle Chinese pronunciation (國家, reconstructed)
Character (), Pronunciation 1/1

Initial: (28)
Final: (132)
Tone: Checked (Ø)

Openness: Closed
Division: I
Fanqie:

Expected Mandarin reflex: guo
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Pan
Wuyun
Shao
Rongfen
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Li
Rong
Wang
Li
Bernard
Karlgren
/kwək̚/ /kʷək̚/ /kuək̚/ /kwək̚/ /kuək̚/ /kuək̚/ /kwək̚/
Character (), Pronunciation 1/1

Initial: (28)
Final: (98)
Tone: Level (Ø)

Openness: Open
Division: II
Fanqie:

Expected Mandarin reflex: jiā
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Pan
Wuyun
Shao
Rongfen
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Li
Rong
Wang
Li
Bernard
Karlgren
/kɣa/ /kɯa/ /ka/ /kaɨ/ /ka/ /ka/ /ka/
Old Chinese pronunciation (國家, reconstructed)
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character Modern Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle Chinese Old Chinese English
guó ‹ kwok › /*[C.q]ʷˤək/ state (n.)
jiā ‹  › /*kˤra/ household

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

  • Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
  • Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
  • Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
  • Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;
  • Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character No. Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
Corresponding
MC rime
Old Chinese Notes
5547 0 /*kʷɯːɡ/
5919 0 /*kraː/

Noun[edit]

國家

  1. country; nation; (nation-)state
    英語國家 / 英语国家  ―  yīngyǔ guójiā  ―  English-speaking country
    內陸國家 / 内陆国家  ―  nèilù guójiā  ―  landlocked country
    單一制國家 / 单一制国家  ―  dānyīzhì guójiā  ―  unitary state
    治理國家 / 治理国家  ―  zhìlǐ guójiā  ―  to govern a country

Adjective[edit]

國家

  1. (attributive) national; country; (nation-)state
    國家稅務總局 / 国家税务总局  ―  guójiā shuìwù zǒngjú  ―  the State Administration of Taxation (of the People's Republic of China)

Derived terms[edit]

Descendants[edit]

Sino-Xenic (國家):

Japanese[edit]

Kanji in this term
こく > こっ
Jinmeiyō

Grade: 2
on'yomi

Noun[edit]

國家 ‎(kyūjitai kanji, shinjitai kanji 国家, hiragana こっか, romaji kokka)

  1. nation

Korean[edit]

Hanja in this term

Noun[edit]

國家 ‎(gukga) ‎(hangeul 국가)

  1. Hanja form? of 국가, “nation, country, state, polity”.

Vietnamese[edit]

Hán tự in this word

Noun[edit]

國家

  1. Hán tự form of quốc gia, "nation, state"