公家

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Japanese[edit]

Kanji in this term
Grade: 2 Grade: 2

Etymology 1[edit]

Probably originally from Middle Chinese 公家. Compare modern Mandarin 公家 (gōngjiā, the state, the public). The meaning in Japanese developed from “great house, great family” to then signify “the imperial family”, then by extension the courtiers, and again the nobility.[1] The reading is an alteration from the expected go'on reading of kuke.

Pronunciation[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Noun[edit]

公家 (hiragana くげ, romaji kuge)

  1. the imperial court
  2. the emperor and courtiers
  3. the nobility in general

Etymology 2[edit]

The kan'on reading, suggesting a later borrowing. Rarely used.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

公家 (hiragana こうか, romaji kōka)

  1. (rare) the imperial court
  2. (rare) the emperor and courtiers

Etymology 3[edit]

Mixed reading, using the kan'on for and the go'on for . Rarely used.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

公家 (hiragana こうけ, romaji kōke)

  1. (rare) the imperial court
  2. (rare) the emperor and courtiers

References[edit]

  1. ^ 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
  2. ^ 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, ISBN 978-4-14-011112-3