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Character U+4E16 (世)
Name CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-4E16
Block CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+4E15] [U+4E17]

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
世-order.gif

Han character[edit]

(radical 1 +4, 5 strokes, cangjie input 心廿 (PT), four-corner 44717, composition廿𠃊)

Descendants[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 77, character 11
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 31
  • Dae Jaweon: page 155, character 2
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 1, page 14, character 6
  • Unihan data for U+4E16

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.
alt. forms

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Bronze inscriptions Large seal script Small seal script
世-bronze.svg 世-bigseal.svg 世-seal.svg




References:

Mostly from Richard Sears' Chinese Etymology site (authorisation),
which in turn draws data from various collections of ancient forms of Chinese characters, including:

  • Shuowen Jiezi (small seal),
  • Jinwen Bian (bronze inscriptions),
  • Liushutong (large seal) and
  • Xu Jiaguwen Bian (oracle bone script).

Pictogram (象形) – three leaves on a branch. The derivative (OC *hljeb, *leb) refers to the original word.

Etymology[edit]

(OC *hljebs) is derived from iterative devoicing of (OC *hljeb, *leb, “leaf”) + *-s suffix, meaning successive foliages of a tree > generations. Compare Tibetan ལོ་མ ‎(lo ma, leaf), Western Tibetan ལོབ་མ ‎(lob ma, leaf) and Tibetan ལོ ‎(lo, year).

Pronunciation[edit]



  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /ʂʐ̩⁵¹/
Harbin /ʂʐ̩⁵³/
Tianjin /ʂʐ̩⁵³/
Jinan /ʂʐ̩²¹/
Qingdao /ʃz̩⁴²/
Zhengzhou /ʂʐ̩³¹²/
Xi'an /ʂʐ̩⁴⁴/
Xining /ʂʐ̩²¹³/
Yinchuan /ʂʐ̩¹³/
Lanzhou /ʂʐ̩¹³/
Ürümqi /ʂʐ̩²¹³/
Wuhan /sz̩³⁵/
Chengdu /sz̩¹³/
Guiyang /sz̩²¹³/
Kunming /ʂʐ̩²¹²/
Nanjing /ʂʐ̩⁴⁴/
Hefei /ʂʐ̩⁵³/
Jin Taiyuan /sz̩⁴⁵/
Pingyao /ʂʐ̩³⁵/
Hohhot /sz̩⁵⁵/
Wu Shanghai /sz̩³⁵/
Suzhou /sz̩ʷ⁵¹³/
Hangzhou /sz̩⁴⁴⁵/
Wenzhou /sei⁴²/
Hui Shexian /ɕi³²⁴/
Tunxi /ɕie⁴²/
/ɕi¹¹/
Xiang Changsha /ʂʐ̩⁵⁵/
Xiangtan /ʂʐ̩⁵⁵/
Gan Nanchang /sz̩⁴⁵/
Hakka Meixian /sz̩⁵³/
Taoyuan /ʃï⁵⁵/
Cantonese Guangzhou /sɐi³⁵/
Nanning /sɐi³³/
Hong Kong /sɐi³³/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /se²¹/
/si²¹/
/sua²¹/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /siɛ²¹²/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /si³³/
Shantou (Min Nan) /si²¹³/
Haikou (Min Nan) /ti³⁵/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (26)
Final () (35)
Tone (調) Departing (H)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ɕiᴇiH/
Pan
Wuyun
/ɕiɛiH/
Shao
Rongfen
/ɕjæiH/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ɕiajH/
Li
Rong
/ɕiɛiH/
Wang
Li
/ɕĭɛiH/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ɕi̯ɛiH/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
shì
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
shì
Middle
Chinese
‹ syejH ›
Old
Chinese
/*l̥ap-s/
English generation

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 11537
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
2
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*hljebs/
Notes

Definitions[edit]

  1. generation
      ―  shìdài  ―  generation
  2. for many generations; spanning many generations
  3. era; period; time; epoch
  4. dynasty; regime
  5. year; age
  6. Classifier for the time of one's life.
    一生一  ―  yīshēngyīshì  ―  a lifetime, all of one's life
  7. world; earth; people in the world
      ―  shìjiè  ―  world
  8. worldly; profane; secular
  9. A surname​.

Compounds[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(grade 3 “Kyōiku” kanji)

Readings[edit]

Compounds[edit]

Counter[edit]

‎(hiragana せい, romaji -sei)

  1. generations

Noun[edit]

‎(hiragana , romaji yo)

  1. world, society
  2. generation, age

Suffix[edit]

‎(hiragana せい, romaji -sei)

  1. (geology) epoch

Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

‎(se)
Eumhun:

  • Sound (hangeul):  (revised: se, McCune-Reischauer: se, Yale: sey)
  • Name (hangeul): 인간 (revised: in-gan, McCune-Reischauer: in'gan)
  1. This entry needs a definition. Please add one, then remove {{defn}}.

References[edit]


Okinawan[edit]

Kanji[edit]

Compounds[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Cognate with mainland Japanese ‎(yo).

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

‎(hiragana ゆー, romaji )

  1. age, era, period, time; rule
  2. world, society

Derived terms[edit]


Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(thế, thá, thé, thể)

  1. This entry needs a definition. Please add one, then remove {{defn}}.

References[edit]