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It-世.png
U+4E16, 世
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-4E16

[U+4E15]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+4E17]

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
世-order.gif

Han character[edit]

(radical 1, +4, 5 strokes, cangjie input 心廿 (PT), four-corner 44717, composition廿𠃊 or ⿻)

Descendants[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 77, character 11
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 31
  • Dae Jaweon: page 155, character 2
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 1, page 14, character 6
  • Unihan data for U+4E16

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.
alternative forms

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Western Zhou Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Bronze inscriptions Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
世-bronze.svg 世-seal.svg 世-bigseal.svg




References:

Mostly from Richard Sears' Chinese Etymology site (authorisation),
which in turn draws data from various collections of ancient forms of Chinese characters, including:

  • Shuowen Jiezi (small seal),
  • Jinwen Bian (bronze inscriptions),
  • Liushutong (Liushutong characters) and
  • Yinxu Jiaguwen Bian (oracle bone script).
  • Pictogram (象形) – three leaves on a branch. The derivative (OC *hljeb, *leb) refers to the original word.
  • Ideogrammic compound (會意): Triplication of (“ten”) - thirty, such as a variant form . Thirty years make one generation (thirty times twelve months gives 360 months). Compare 廿 (OC *njɯb, “twenty”).

Etymology[edit]

(OC *hljebs) is derived from iterative devoicing of (OC *leb, “leaf”) + *-s suffix, meaning successive foliages of a tree > generations. Compare Tibetan ལོ་མ (lo ma, leaf), Western Tibetan ལོབ་མ (lob ma, leaf) and Tibetan ལོ (lo, year).

Pronunciation[edit]


Note:
  • sì - vernacular (俗);
  • sè - literary;
  • sì - literary (Zhangzhou).
  • Wu

    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location
    Mandarin Beijing /ʂʐ̩⁵¹/
    Harbin /ʂʐ̩⁵³/
    Tianjin /ʂʐ̩⁵³/
    Jinan /ʂʐ̩²¹/
    Qingdao /ʃz̩⁴²/
    Zhengzhou /ʂʐ̩³¹²/
    Xi'an /ʂʐ̩⁴⁴/
    Xining /ʂʐ̩²¹³/
    Yinchuan /ʂʐ̩¹³/
    Lanzhou /ʂʐ̩¹³/
    Ürümqi /ʂʐ̩²¹³/
    Wuhan /sz̩³⁵/
    Chengdu /sz̩¹³/
    Guiyang /sz̩²¹³/
    Kunming /ʂʐ̩²¹²/
    Nanjing /ʂʐ̩⁴⁴/
    Hefei /ʂʐ̩⁵³/
    Jin Taiyuan /sz̩⁴⁵/
    Pingyao /ʂʐ̩³⁵/
    Hohhot /sz̩⁵⁵/
    Wu Shanghai /sz̩³⁵/
    Suzhou /sz̩ʷ⁵¹³/
    Hangzhou /sz̩⁴⁴⁵/
    Wenzhou /sei⁴²/
    Hui Shexian /ɕi³²⁴/
    Tunxi /ɕie⁴²/
    /ɕi¹¹/
    Xiang Changsha /ʂʐ̩⁵⁵/
    Xiangtan /ʂʐ̩⁵⁵/
    Gan Nanchang /sz̩⁴⁵/
    Hakka Meixian /sz̩⁵³/
    Taoyuan /ʃï⁵⁵/
    Cantonese Guangzhou /sɐi³⁵/
    Nanning /sɐi³³/
    Hong Kong /sɐi³³/
    Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /se²¹/
    /si²¹/
    /sua²¹/
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /siɛ²¹²/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /si³³/
    Shantou (Min Nan) /si²¹³/
    Haikou (Min Nan) /ti³⁵/

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (26)
    Final () (35)
    Tone (調) Departing (H)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /ɕiᴇiH/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /ɕiɛiH/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /ɕjæiH/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /ɕiajH/
    Li
    Rong
    /ɕiɛiH/
    Wang
    Li
    /ɕĭɛiH/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /ɕi̯ɛiH/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    shì
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    shì
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ syejH ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*l̥ap-s/
    English generation

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 11537
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    2
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*hljebs/
    Notes

    Definitions[edit]

    1. generation
        ―  shìdài  ―  generation
    2. for many generations; spanning many generations
    3. era; period; time; epoch
    4. dynasty; regime
    5. year; age
    6. Classifier for the time of one's life.
      一生一  ―  yīshēngyīshì  ―  a lifetime, all of one's life
    7. world; earth; people in the world
        ―  shìjiè  ―  world
    8. worldly; profane; secular
    9. A surname​.

    Compounds[edit]


    Japanese[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    (grade 3 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    Readings[edit]

    Compounds[edit]

    Etymology 1[edit]

    Kanji in this term

    Grade: 3
    kun’yomi

    ⟨yo2/yo/

    From Old Japanese, pronunciation is distinct from (/yo1/, night, nighttime).

    Change in meaning of (yo), in the sense of the bamboos and reeds bulging at certain intervals.[1]

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Alternative forms[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana , rōmaji yo)

    1. world, society
    2. this world, this life
      Synonym: 俗世間 (zoku seken)
    3. generation, age, era
    4. lifetime
      Synonym: 一生 (isshō)
    5. lifespan
      Synonym: 寿命 (jumyō)
    6. time of year, season
      Synonyms: 時節 (jisetsu), 時期 (jiki), (ori)
    7. relationship between a man and a woman
    8. period of a person leading as a patriarch (Can we verify(+) this sense?)
    Derived terms[edit]

    Etymology 2[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    せい
    Grade: 3
    on’yomi

    From Middle Chinese (MC ɕiᴇiH). The kan'on reading, so likely a later borrowing.

    Counter[edit]

    (hiragana せい, rōmaji -sei)

    1. generation
      ルパン (さん) (せい)
      Rupan-sansei
      Lupin the Third

    Suffix[edit]

    (hiragana せい, rōmaji -sei)

    1. (geology) epoch

    Proper noun[edit]

    (hiragana せい, rōmaji Sei)

    1. a female given name

    References[edit]

    1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN

    Korean[edit]

    Etymology[edit]

    From Middle Chinese (MC ɕiᴇiH). Attested in 훈몽자회/訓蒙字會 as Middle Korean 셰〯 (Yale: syey).

    Hanja[edit]

    Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

    Wikisource

    (eumhun 인간 (in-gan se))

    1. Hanja form? of (world).
    2. Hanja form? of (lineage; generation).

    Compounds[edit]

    References[edit]

    • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [1]

    Okinawan[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    (grade 3 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    Readings[edit]

    Compounds[edit]

    Etymology[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    ゆー
    Grade: 3
    kun’yomi

    Cognate with mainland Japanese (yo).

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana ゆー, rōmaji )

    1. age, era, period, time; rule
    2. world, society

    Derived terms[edit]

    References[edit]

    • ゆー【世】” in JLect - Japonic Languages and Dialects Database Dictionary, 2019.
    • ユー” in Okinawa Center of Language Study, Shuri-Naha Dialect Dictionary.

    Vietnamese[edit]

    Han character[edit]

    (thế, thá, thé, thể)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    References[edit]