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U+8449, 葉
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-8449

[U+8448]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+844A]
See also: , , and

Translingual[edit]

Han character[edit]

(radical 140 +9, 15 strokes, cangjie input 廿心廿木 (TPTD), four-corner 44904, composition)

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 1044, character 3
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 31387
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1504, character 18
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 5, page 3243, character 15
  • Unihan data for U+8449

Chinese[edit]

trad.
simp.

Glyph origin[edit]

Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*ɦljebs, *hljebs
*l̥ʰebs, *lebs
*ʔljebs
*hljebs
*lebs, *sled
*lebs
*lebs
*lebs
*lebs
*lebs, *led
*lebs
*lebs, *libs
*l̥ʰeːbs
*l̥ʰaːb, *l'eːb
*zreːb, *sled
*zreːb, *l̥ʰeb, *leb
*rlaːb, *ʔl'eːb, *l'eːb
*rlaːb, *sleːb
*l'eb, *leb, *lab
*hljeb, *leb
*hljeb, *hleːb
*hljeb, *sleːb
*leb
*leb
*leb, *l'eːb, *ɦljed
*leb
*leb, *hleːb
*l̥ʰeːb, *l'eːb
*l'eːb
*l'eːb
*l'eːb
*l'eːb
*l'eːb
*l'eːb
*l'eːb
*l'eːb
*sleːb
*sleːb
*sled
*sled
*sled
*sled
*sled

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *hljeb, *leb): semantic (grass) + phonetic (OC *leb, flat).

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *s-lap(leaf). Cognate with Tibetan ལོ་མ(lo ma, leaf), Western Tibetan ལོབ་མ(lob ma, leaf). Related to (OC *hljebs, “world”).

This is part of the word family *lVp meaning “flat”, represented by the phonetic component (OC *leb). Compare also (OC *rlaː, “tea < *leaf”).

Pronunciation[edit]


Note:
  • ia̍p - literary;
  • hio̍h - vernacular (substitute for ).

  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /iɛ⁵¹/
Harbin /iɛ⁵³/
Tianjin /ie⁵³/
Jinan /iə²¹/
Qingdao /iə⁴²/
Zhengzhou /iɛ²⁴/
Xi'an /iɛ²¹/
Xining /i⁴⁴/
Yinchuan /ie¹³/
Lanzhou /iə¹³/
Ürümqi /iɤ²¹³/
Wuhan /ie²¹³/
Chengdu /ie³¹/
Guiyang /ie²¹/
Kunming /iɛ³¹/
Nanjing /ieʔ⁵/
Hefei /iɐʔ⁵/
Jin Taiyuan /iəʔ²/
Pingyao /iʌʔ⁵³/
Hohhot /iaʔ⁴³/
Wu Shanghai /ɦiɪʔ¹/
Suzhou /ɦiəʔ³/
Hangzhou /ɦiəʔ²/
Wenzhou /ji²¹³/
Hui Shexian /ie²²/
Tunxi /ia¹¹/
Xiang Changsha /ie²⁴/
Xiangtan /ie²⁴/
Gan Nanchang /iɛʔ²/
Hakka Meixian /iap̚⁵/
Taoyuan /ʒɑp̚⁵⁵/
Cantonese Guangzhou /jip̚²/
Nanning /jip̚²²/
Hong Kong /jip̚²/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /iap̚⁵/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /ieʔ⁵/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /t͡sia⁴²/
/xiɛ²⁴/
Shantou (Min Nan) /iap̚⁵/
/hioʔ⁵/ 訓讀
Haikou (Min Nan) /iap̚³/
/hio³³/ 訓箬

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/2 2/2
Initial () (36) (26)
Final () (155) (155)
Tone (調) Checked (Ø) Checked (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open Open
Division () III III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/jiᴇp̚/ /ɕiᴇp̚/
Pan
Wuyun
/jiɛp̚/ /ɕiɛp̚/
Shao
Rongfen
/jæp̚/ /ɕjæp̚/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/jiap̚/ /ɕiap̚/
Li
Rong
/iɛp̚/ /ɕiɛp̚/
Wang
Li
/jĭɛp̚/ /ɕĭɛp̚/
Bernard
Karlgren
/i̯ɛp̚/ /ɕi̯ɛp̚/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
she
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle
Chinese
‹ yep ›
Old
Chinese
/*l[a]p/
English leaf

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/2 2/2
No. 11557 11561
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
2 2
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*hljeb/ /*leb/

Definitions[edit]

  1. leaf; petal
  2. page of book
  3. era; epoch
  4. (southern Wu, Min) wing
  5. A surname​.

Synonyms[edit]

  • (leaf): (Min)

Compounds[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(grade 3 “Kyōiku” kanji)

Readings[edit]

Compounds[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Japanese Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia ja
Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia
(ha, ): sunlight through leaves.
Kanji in this term

Grade: 3
kun'yomi

/pa//fa//ha/

From Old Japanese.[1] Probably cognate with Old Japanese verb 生ゆ(hayu, to sprout, to grow) → modern 生える(haeru), and with (ha, feather; wing). Probably also cognate with (ha, tooth) from the way that both sprout and then later fall, and with (ha, blade) from similarities in shape.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

‎(counter , hiragana , romaji ha)

  1. leaf, needle, blade (of a plant)
Synonyms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Kanji in this term
よう
Grade: 3
on'yomi

/epu//efu//eu//yoː/

From Middle Chinese (yep, leaf).

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

‎(hiragana よう, romaji , historical hiragana えふ)

  1. leaf, needle, blade (of a plant)
  2. a season, an age: a shorter period of time within a longer one
  3. an administration: the period of time during which a certain person holds a certain office

Counter[edit]

‎(hiragana よう, romaji -yō, historical hiragana えふ)

  1. (rare) counter for flat, thin things such as leaves or paper
  2. (by extension) counter for small boats

References[edit]

  1. ^ 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
  2. 2.0 2.1 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, ISBN 4-385-13905-9

Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

‎(yeop, seop) (hangeul , , McCune-Reischauer yŏp, sŏp, Yale yep, sep)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

Okinawan[edit]

Kanji[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Derived from Proto-Japonic pa. Cognate with Kunigami phaá, Middle Japanese ɸa, and modern Japanese ha.

Noun[edit]

‎(hiragana ふぁー, romaji )

  1. leaf

Compounds[edit]


Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(diệp, diếp, dợp, dớp, đẹp, giấp, giẹp, nhịp, riếp, dào)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.