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See also: and
U+91CD, 重
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-91CD

[U+91CC]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+91CE]

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
9 strokes

Han character[edit]

(Kangxi radical 166, +2, 9 strokes, cangjie input 竹十田土 (HJWG), four-corner 20104, composition)

Derived characters[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 1291, character 3
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 40132
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1791, character 7
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 6, page 3680, character 2
  • Unihan data for U+91CD

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.
alternative forms 𡍴 ancient
𡍺 ancient
𨤣

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Chu slip and silk script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
重-oracle.svg 重-bronze.svg 重-silk.svg 重-seal.svg 重-bigseal.svg

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *doŋ, *doŋʔ, *doŋs) and ideogrammic compound (會意): semantic (man) + phonetic (OC *toːŋ, bag) – a man carrying a bag. A glyph (“earth”) was later added to show that the bag-carrying man is standing on the ground. From this composition is the current form.

Etymology[edit]

Pronunciation 3 is the exoactive derivation of pronunciation 1.

Pronunciation 1[edit]


Note:
  • dâe̤ng - vernacular;
  • dê̤ṳng - literary.
  • Min Nan
  • Note:
    • tāng/tǎng - vernacular;
    • tiōng/tiǒng - literary.
    Note:
    • dang6 - vernacular;
    • dong6 - literary.
  • Wu

  • Rime
    Character
    Reading # 2/3
    Initial () (11)
    Final () (7)
    Tone (調) Rising (X)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /ɖɨoŋX/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /ɖioŋX/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /ȡioŋX/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /ɖuawŋX/
    Li
    Rong
    /ȡioŋX/
    Wang
    Li
    /ȡĭwoŋX/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /ȡʱi̯woŋX/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    zhòng
    Expected
    Cantonese
    Reflex
    zung6
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 2/3
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    zhòng
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ drjowngX ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*N-t<r>oŋʔ/
    English heavy

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 2/3
    No. 17462
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*doŋʔ/
    Notes

    Definitions[edit]

    1. heavy
      Antonym: (qīng)
      書包 [Cantonese, trad.]
      书包 [Cantonese, simp.]
      nei5 go3 syu1 baau1 gam3 cung5 ge2? [Jyutping]
      Why is your schoolbag so heavy?
    2. weight
      蘋果100 / 苹果100  ―  Yī ge píngguǒ zhòng yuē 100 kè.  ―  An apple weighs about 100 g on average.
    3. deep; grave; serious; severe
      /   ―  zhòng  ―  to punish severely
      傷勢 / 伤势  ―  shāngshì hěn zhòng  ―  to be seriously wounded
        ―  Nǎi wèi zhòng le xiē.  ―  It's a bit too milky.
    4. considerable (in amount)
    Synonyms[edit]

    Compounds[edit]

    Pronunciation 2[edit]


    Note:
    • dâe̤ng - vernacular;
    • dê̤ṳng - literary.
  • Min Nan
  • Note:
    • tāng/tǎng - vernacular;
    • tiōng/tiǒng - literary.
    Note:
    • dang6 - vernacular;
    • dong6 - literary.
  • Wu

  • Rime
    Character
    Reading # 3/3
    Initial () (11)
    Final () (7)
    Tone (調) Departing (H)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /ɖɨoŋH/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /ɖioŋH/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /ȡioŋH/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /ɖuawŋH/
    Li
    Rong
    /ȡioŋH/
    Wang
    Li
    /ȡĭwoŋH/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /ȡʱi̯woŋH/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    zhòng
    Expected
    Cantonese
    Reflex
    zung6
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 3/3
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    zhòng
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ drjowngH ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*N-t<r>oŋʔ-s/
    English weight (n.)

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 3/3
    No. 17463
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*doŋs/

    Definitions[edit]

    1. weight
    2. weighty; important
        ―  zhòngrèn  ―  important task
    3. grave; serious
    4. solemn
        ―  lóngzhòng  ―  grand; solemn
      /   ―  zhuāngzhòng  ―  solemn; serious
    5. prudent
    6. to respect; to attach importance to
      義輕利 / 义轻利  ―  zhòngyìqīnglì  ―  to value righteousness and care little for material gain
    7. (Cantonese) still
      alt. forms:
    8. (Cantonese) even more
      alt. forms:
    Synonyms[edit]

    Pronunciation 3[edit]


    Note:
    • tṳ̀ng - vernacular;
    • dṳ̀ng - literary.
  • Min Nan
  • Note:
    • têng, tâⁿ - vernacular;
    • tiông - literary.
    Note: cong5 - for 重慶.

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/3
    Initial () (11)
    Final () (7)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /ɖɨoŋ/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /ɖioŋ/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /ȡioŋ/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /ɖuawŋ/
    Li
    Rong
    /ȡioŋ/
    Wang
    Li
    /ȡĭwoŋ/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /ȡʱi̯woŋ/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    chóng
    Expected
    Cantonese
    Reflex
    cung4
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/3
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    chóng
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ drjowng ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*[m]-troŋ/
    English repeat; double

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/3
    No. 17457
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*doŋ/

    Definitions[edit]

    1. to repeat; to duplicate
    2. to stack up; to pile up; to overlay
    3. again; once more
        ―  chóngféng  ―  to meet again
      [Cantonese]  ―  cung4 zou6 [Jyutping]  ―  to redo; to do again
      家園 / 家园  ―  chóngjiàn jiāyuán  ―  to rebuild one's home
    4. Classifier for layers of an object.
      人格障礙 / 人格障碍  ―  duōchóngréngézhàng'ài  ―  multiple personality disorder

    Compounds[edit]


    Japanese[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    (grade 3 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    Readings[edit]

    Compounds[edit]

    Etymology 1[edit]

    /pe//ɸe//he/. Presumably related with Goguryeo 別 (*peT).

    Noun[edit]

    () (he

    1. a division
    2. something that divides two objects
    Derived terms[edit]
    See also[edit]

    Etymology 2[edit]

    /-pe//-ɸe//-we//-e/. Cognate with (he, division). The divergent phonological development is due to the non-null environment caused by being suffixed to the previous morpheme.

    Suffix[edit]

    () (-e (fe)?

    1. the number of overlaps; fold, layer
    Derived terms[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (おも) (omo

    1. main, principal, important

    Alternative forms[edit]

    See also[edit]

    Etymology 3[edit]

    Prefix[edit]

    (じゅう) (jū-

    1. heavy, weighty
    2. involving large-scale manufacture, heavy
    3. great in degree, heavy, serious, severe, hard, difficult

    Korean[edit]

    Etymology 1[edit]

    (This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

    Hanja[edit]

    (eumhun 무거울 (mugeoul jung))

    1. Hanja form? of (heavy).

    Etymology 2[edit]

    Hanja[edit]

    (eumhun 아이 (ai dong))

    1. (obsolete) Alternative form of (Hanja form? of (child).)
    2. (obsolete) Alternative form of (Hanja form? of (child).)

    Vietnamese[edit]

    Han character[edit]

    : Hán Nôm readings: trọng, chồng, chuộng, trộng, trụng, trùng, chõng, trửng

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    References[edit]