明白

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Chinese[edit]

 
clear; bright; to understand; next; the Ming dynasty
 
white; empty; blank; bright; clear; plain; pure; gratuitous
simp. and trad.
(明白)

Etymology[edit]

From (míng, “to be bright > clear”) + (bái, “to be white > clean, bright”) Attested in Zhuangzi ("clear and clean"), Chu Ci ("bright and clean"), Mozi ("to be evident, clear"), Tao Te Ching ("to know, to understand").

Pronunciation[edit]



Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1 1/1
Initial () (4) (3)
Final () (111) (113)
Tone (調) Level (Ø) Checked (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open Open
Division () III II
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/mˠiæŋ/ /bˠæk̚/
Pan
Wuyun
/mᵚiaŋ/ /bᵚak̚/
Shao
Rongfen
/miaŋ/ /bak̚/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/miajŋ/ /baɨjk̚/
Li
Rong
/miɐŋ/ /bɐk̚/
Wang
Li
/mĭɐŋ/ /bɐk̚/
Bernard
Karlgren
/mi̯ɐŋ/ /bʱɐk̚/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
míng
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
míng bái
Middle
Chinese
‹ mjæng › ‹ bæk ›
Old
Chinese
/*mraŋ/ /*bˤrak/
English bright white

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1 1/1
No. 9188 207
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0 0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*mraŋ/ /*braːɡ/

Verb[edit]

明白

  1. to understand; to know
    明白 [MSC, trad.]
    明白 [MSC, simp.]
    Wǒ jiǎng de huà nǐ míngbai le ma? [Pinyin]
    Do you understand what I said?
    什麼心裡明白 [MSC, trad.]
    什么心里明白 [MSC, simp.]
    Nǐ zài xiǎng shénme, wǒ xīnli quán míngbai. [Pinyin]
    I know for sure what you are thinking.

Synonyms[edit]

Usage notes[edit]

When used as a verb, 明白 conveys an understanding of a meaning or a situation. To express an ability to understand a language, see 會說会说 (huìshuō, “to be able to speak”), 聽懂听懂 (tīngdǒng, “to understand when reading”) or 看懂 (kàndǒng, “to understand by listening”).

Adjective[edit]

明白

  1. clear; obvious; evident
  2. open; explicit; frank
  3. sensible; reasonable

Synonyms[edit]

See also[edit]

  • (not to be confused with) 明日 (míngrì)

Derived terms[edit]

Descendants[edit]

Sino-Xenic (明白):

Japanese[edit]

Kanji in this term
めい
Grade: 2
はく
Grade: 1
on'yomi

Adjectival noun[edit]

明白 (-na inflection, hiragana めいはく, rōmaji meihaku)

  1. clear, obvious, plain, undeniable
    明白 (めいはく)安保理決議違反 (あんぽりけつぎいはん)だ。
    Meihaku na anpori ketsugi ihan da.
    It is a clear violation of Security Council resolutions.

Inflection[edit]

Noun[edit]

明白 (hiragana めいはく, rōmaji meihaku)

  1. obviousness, undeniability

References[edit]

  • 2002, Ineko Kondō; Fumi Takano; Mary E Althaus; et. al., Shogakukan Progressive Japanese-English Dictionary, Third Edition, Tokyo: Shōgakukan, ISBN 4095102535.
  • 2002, Yasuo Kitahara, 明鏡国語辞典 (Meikyō Kokugo Jiten), First Edition (in Japanese), Tokyo: Taishūkan Shoten, ISBN 4469021067

Vietnamese[edit]

Hán tự in this word

Adjective[edit]

明白

  1. Hán tự form of minh bạch