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See also:
U+7B49, 等
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-7B49

[U+7B48]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+7B4A]

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
12 strokes

Han character[edit]

(radical 118, +6, 12 strokes, cangjie input 竹土木戈 (HGDI), four-corner 88341, composition)

Derived characters[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 882, character 24
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 25992
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1311, character 5
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 5, page 2962, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+7B49

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.

Glyph origin[edit]

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *tɯːʔ, *tɯːŋʔ): semantic  (bamboo) + phonetic  (OC *ljɯs).

here refers to the bamboo strips used for writing (e.g. grading, classification) in ancient times. (OC *ljɯs) was originally used phonetically; the character was subsequently borrowed for another word with the same meaning, but with no phonetic resemblance to .

Etymology[edit]

“rank; class; kind; to equate; and the like; plural particle
From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *s-tjaŋ (top; to rise; to raise) (STEDT). Endoactive of (OC *tɯːŋ, “to rise; to ascend”) (Schuessler, 2007).
“to wait”
A medieval word, probably related to (OC *dɯːʔ, “to wait”) (Wang, 1982).

Pronunciation[edit]


Note:
  • Southern Sixian:
    • tên/nên - plural particle;
    • tén/nén/nún/lún - progressive particle;
    • tén - other senses.
  • Jin
  • Min Bei
  • Min Dong
  • Note:
    • dēng - vernacular, used for "rank/grade";
    • dīng - literary, used for "to wait" or in literary reading.
  • Min Nan
  • Note:
    • tán - vernacular ("to wait");
    • téng/tńg - literary (“rank/grade”, “and so on”).
    Note:
    • dang2 - vernacular;
    • dêng2 - literary.
  • Wu
  • Xiang

    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location
    Mandarin Beijing /təŋ²¹⁴/
    Harbin /təŋ²¹³/
    Tianjin /təŋ¹³/
    Jinan /təŋ⁵⁵/
    Qingdao /təŋ⁵⁵/
    Zhengzhou /təŋ⁵³/
    Xi'an /təŋ⁵³/
    Xining /tə̃⁵³/
    Yinchuan /təŋ⁵³/
    Lanzhou /tə̃n⁴⁴²/
    Ürümqi /tɤŋ⁵¹/
    Wuhan /tən⁴²/
    Chengdu /tən⁵³/
    Guiyang /ten⁴²/
    Kunming /tə̃/
    Nanjing /tən²¹²/
    Hefei /tən²⁴/
    Jin Taiyuan /təŋ⁵³/
    Pingyao /təŋ⁵³/
    Hohhot /tə̃ŋ⁵³/
    Wu Shanghai /təŋ³⁵/
    Suzhou /tən⁵¹/
    Hangzhou /ten⁵³/
    Wenzhou /taŋ³⁵/
    Hui Shexian /tʌ̃³⁵/
    Tunxi /tɛ³¹/
    Xiang Changsha /tən⁴¹/
    Xiangtan /tən⁴²/
    Gan Nanchang /tɛn²¹³/
    Hakka Meixian /ten³¹/
    Taoyuan /ten³¹/
    Cantonese Guangzhou /tɐŋ³⁵/
    Nanning /tɐŋ³⁵/
    Hong Kong /tɐŋ³⁵/
    Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /tiŋ⁵³/
    /tan⁵³/
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /tiŋ³²/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /taiŋ²¹/
    Shantou (Min Nan) /teŋ⁵³/
    /taŋ⁵³/
    Haikou (Min Nan) /ʔdeŋ²¹³/
    /ʔdɔŋ²¹³/
    /ʔdaŋ²¹³/

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/2 2/2
    Initial () (5) (5)
    Final () (41) (129)
    Tone (調) Rising (X) Rising (X)
    Openness (開合) Open Open
    Division () I I
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /tʌiX/ /təŋX/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /təiX/ /təŋX/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /tɒiX/ /təŋX/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /təjX/ /təŋX/
    Li
    Rong
    /tᴀiX/ /təŋX/
    Wang
    Li
    /tɒiX/ /təŋX/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /tɑ̆iX/ /təŋX/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    dǎi děng
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    děng
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ tongX ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*tˁəŋʔ/
    English step, grade

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2 2/2
    No. 12028 12054
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0 0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*tɯːʔ/ /*tɯːŋʔ/

    Definitions[edit]

    1. to arrange bamboo slips neatly
    2. rank; grade; class
    3. sort; kind; type
    4. (Chinese phonetics) one of the "divisions" of a rime table
      重紐 / 重纽  ―  chóngniǔ sānděng  ―  the third division member of a rime doublet
    5. to equate; to be equal
    6. and the like; and so on; etc.; et al.
      今天晚上話劇唱歌跳舞精彩表演 [MSC, trad.]
      今天晚上话剧唱歌跳舞精彩表演 [MSC, simp.]
      Jīntiān wǎnshàng yǒu huàjù, chànggē, tiàowǔ děng jīngcǎi biǎoyǎn. [Pinyin]
      Tonight there are wonderful performances like drama, singing, dancing, and more.
    7. (literary or Hakka) Plural particle used after personal pronouns or nouns.
      / [Classical Chinese]  ―  ěrděng [Pinyin]  ―  you (plural)
      𠊎 [Hakka]  ―  ngài-tén [Pha̍k-fa-sṳ]  ―  we; us
    8. to wait
      多久  ―  děng duōjiǔ le?  ―  How long have you been waiting?
    9. (Hakka) Progressive particle, used after verbs to indicate the continuation of an action or a state.
    10. A surname​.

    Compounds[edit]

    Descendants[edit]

    Sino-Xenic ():
    • Japanese: (とう) ()
    • Korean: (, deung)
    • Vietnamese: đẳng ()

    References[edit]


    Japanese[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    (grade 3 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    Readings[edit]

    Etymology 1[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    とう
    Grade: 3
    on’yomi

    From Middle Chinese (tongX, step, grade), extended to mean ... kind of thing.

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Adverb[edit]

    (とう) (

    1. et cetera

    Suffix[edit]

    (とう) (-tō

    1. rank, class, order
    2. et cetera, that kind of thing, and so on
    Usage notes[edit]

    For the et cetera sense, the reading is somewhat more formal than the nado reading.

    Derived terms[edit]

    Etymology 2[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    など
    Grade: 3
    kun’yomi

    From earlier なんど (nando, etc., and so forth, and such like), from earlier 何と (nani to, etc., and so forth, and such like, literally and what), itself a compound of (nani, what) + (to, and).[2][1][3]

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Adverb[edit]

    (など) (nado

    1. et cetera, that kind of thing, and so on
      (さかな)(にく)(など)
      sakana ya niku nado
      things like fish or meat, fish and meat et cetera / and other such things
    Usage notes[edit]

    For the et cetera sense, the reading is somewhat more formal than the nado reading.

    Often spelled in hiragana, as など.

    Etymology 3[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    なんど
    Grade: 3
    kun’yomi

    From earlier 何と (nani to, etc., and so forth, and such like, literally and what), itself a compound of (nani, what) + (to, and).[2][1][3]

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Adverb[edit]

    (なんど) (nando

    1. (archaic, chiefly obsolete) et cetera, that kind of thing, and so on
    Usage notes[edit]

    Largely superseded by the nado reading above.

    May be spelled in hiragana, as なんど.

    Etymology 4[edit]

    Kanji in this term

    Grade: 3
    kun’yomi

    From Old Japanese.

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Suffix[edit]

    () (-ra

    1. pluralizer
      (われ)(われ)()、これ、これ()
      ware, warera, kore, korera
      I, we, this, these
    2. qualifier, softener: around abouts
      今日(きょう)()、そこ()(へん)
      kyōra, sokora hen
      roughly today, that area around there
    Usage notes[edit]

    Often spelled in hiragana, as .

    References[edit]

    1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
    2. 2.0 2.1 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
    3. 3.0 3.1 1995, 大辞泉 (Daijisen) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan, →ISBN

    Korean[edit]

    Hanja[edit]

    (eumhun 무리 (muri deung))

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    Vietnamese[edit]

    Han character[edit]

    (đẳng, đấng, đứng)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.