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See also:
U+7B49, 等
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-7B49

[U+7B48]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+7B4A]

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
12 strokes

Han character[edit]

(radical 118, +6, 12 strokes, cangjie input 竹土木戈 (HGDI), four-corner 88341, composition)

Derived characters[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 882, character 24
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 25992
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1311, character 5
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 5, page 2962, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+7B49

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.

Glyph origin[edit]

Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*tɯːʔ, *tɯːŋʔ
*dɯːʔ
*ljɯs
*l'ɯ
*dɯʔ
*dɯʔ
*dɯʔ
*dɯʔ
*dɯʔ, *tjɯʔ
*dɯʔ, *tjɯʔ, *djɯʔ
*dɯʔ, *djɯs
*dɯʔ
*djɯ
*djɯ
*djɯ
*djɯ, *djɯs
*djɯ
*djɯʔ
*djɯs
*hljɯ
*hljɯ
*dɯːɡ

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *tɯːʔ, *tɯːŋʔ): semantic  (bamboo) + phonetic  (OC *ljɯs).

here refers to the bamboo strips used for writing (e.g. grading, classification) in ancient times. (OC *ljɯs) was originally used phonetically; the character was subsequently borrowed for another word with the same meaning, but with no phonetic resemblance to .

Etymology[edit]

“rank; class; kind; to equate; and the like; plural particle
Endoactive of (OC *tɯːŋ, “to rise; to ascend”) (Schuessler, 2007).
“to wait”
A medieval word, probably related to (OC *dɯːʔ, “to wait”) (Wang, 1982).

Pronunciation[edit]


Note:
  • Southern Sixian:
    • tên/nên - plural particle;
    • tén/nén/nún/lún - progressive particle;
    • tén - other senses.
  • Jin
  • Min Bei
  • Min Dong
  • Note:
    • dēng - vernacular, used for "rank/grade";
    • dīng - literary, used for "to wait" or in literary reading.
  • Min Nan
  • Note:
    • tán - vernacular;
    • téng/tńg - literary.
    Note:
    • dang2 - vernacular;
    • dêng2 - literary.
  • Wu
  • Xiang

    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location
    Mandarin Beijing /təŋ²¹⁴/
    Harbin /təŋ²¹³/
    Tianjin /təŋ¹³/
    Jinan /təŋ⁵⁵/
    Qingdao /təŋ⁵⁵/
    Zhengzhou /təŋ⁵³/
    Xi'an /təŋ⁵³/
    Xining /tə̃⁵³/
    Yinchuan /təŋ⁵³/
    Lanzhou /tə̃n⁴⁴²/
    Ürümqi /tɤŋ⁵¹/
    Wuhan /tən⁴²/
    Chengdu /tən⁵³/
    Guiyang /ten⁴²/
    Kunming /tə̃/
    Nanjing /tən²¹²/
    Hefei /tən²⁴/
    Jin Taiyuan /təŋ⁵³/
    Pingyao /təŋ⁵³/
    Hohhot /tə̃ŋ⁵³/
    Wu Shanghai /təŋ³⁵/
    Suzhou /tən⁵¹/
    Hangzhou /ten⁵³/
    Wenzhou /taŋ³⁵/
    Hui Shexian /tʌ̃³⁵/
    Tunxi /tɛ³¹/
    Xiang Changsha /tən⁴¹/
    Xiangtan /tən⁴²/
    Gan Nanchang /tɛn²¹³/
    Hakka Meixian /ten³¹/
    Taoyuan /ten³¹/
    Cantonese Guangzhou /tɐŋ³⁵/
    Nanning /tɐŋ³⁵/
    Hong Kong /tɐŋ³⁵/
    Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /tiŋ⁵³/
    /tan⁵³/
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /tiŋ³²/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /taiŋ²¹/
    Shantou (Min Nan) /teŋ⁵³/
    /taŋ⁵³/
    Haikou (Min Nan) /ʔdeŋ²¹³/
    /ʔdɔŋ²¹³/
    /ʔdaŋ²¹³/

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/2 2/2
    Initial () (5) (5)
    Final () (41) (129)
    Tone (調) Rising (X) Rising (X)
    Openness (開合) Open Open
    Division () I I
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /tʌiX/ /təŋX/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /təiX/ /təŋX/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /tɒiX/ /təŋX/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /təjX/ /təŋX/
    Li
    Rong
    /tᴀiX/ /təŋX/
    Wang
    Li
    /tɒiX/ /təŋX/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /tɑ̆iX/ /təŋX/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    dǎi děng
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    děng
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ tongX ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*tˁəŋʔ/
    English step, grade

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2 2/2
    No. 12028 12054
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0 0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*tɯːʔ/ /*tɯːŋʔ/

    Definitions[edit]

    1. to arrange bamboo slips neatly
    2. rank; grade; class
    3. sort; kind; type
    4. to equate; to be equal
    5. and the like; and so on; etc.; et al.
      今天晚上話劇唱歌跳舞精彩表演 [MSC, trad.]
      今天晚上话剧唱歌跳舞精彩表演 [MSC, simp.]
      Jīntiān wǎnshàng yǒu huàjù, chànggē, tiàowǔ děng jīngcǎi biǎoyǎn. [Pinyin]
      Tonight there are wonderful performances like drama, singing, dancing, and more.
    6. (literary or Hakka) Plural particle used after personal pronouns or nouns.
      / [Classical Chinese]  ―  ěrděng [Pinyin]  ―  you (plural)
      𠊎 [Hakka]  ―  ngài-tén [Pha̍k-fa-sṳ]  ―  we; us
    7. to wait
      多久  ―  děng duōjiǔ le?  ―  How long have you been waiting?
    8. (Hakka) Progressive particle, used after verbs to indicate the continuation of an action or a state.
    9. A surname​.

    Compounds[edit]


    Japanese[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    (grade 3 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    Readings[edit]

    Compounds[edit]

    Etymology 1[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    とう
    Grade: 3
    on’yomi

    From Middle Chinese (tongX, step, grade), extended to mean ... kind of thing.

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Adverb[edit]

    (hiragana とう, rōmaji )

    1. et cetera

    Suffix[edit]

    (hiragana とう, rōmaji -tō)

    1. rank, class, order
    2. et cetera, that kind of thing, and so on
    Usage notes[edit]

    For the et cetera sense, the reading is somewhat more formal than the nado reading.

    Etymology 2[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    など
    Grade: 3
    kun’yomi

    From earlier なんど (nando, etc., and so forth, and such like), from earlier 何と (nani to, etc., and so forth, and such like, literally and what), itself a compound of (nani, what) + (to, and).[2][1][3]

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Adverb[edit]

    (hiragana など, rōmaji nado)

    1. et cetera, that kind of thing, and so on
       (さかな) (にく) (など)
      sakana ya niku nado
      things like fish or meat, fish and meat et cetera / and other such things
    Usage notes[edit]

    For the et cetera sense, the reading is somewhat more formal than the nado reading.

    Often spelled in hiragana, as など.

    Etymology 3[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    なんど
    Grade: 3
    kun’yomi

    From earlier 何と (nani to, etc., and so forth, and such like, literally and what), itself a compound of (nani, what) + (to, and).[2][1][3]

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Adverb[edit]

    (hiragana なんど, rōmaji nando)

    1. (archaic, chiefly obsolete) et cetera, that kind of thing, and so on
    Usage notes[edit]

    Largely superseded by the nado reading above.

    May be spelled in hiragana, as なんど.

    Etymology 4[edit]

    Kanji in this term

    Grade: 3
    kun’yomi

    From Old Japanese.

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Suffix[edit]

    (hiragana , rōmaji -ra)

    1. pluralizer
       (われ) (われ) ()、これ、これ ()
      ware, warera, kore, korera
      I, we, this, these
    2. qualifier, softener: around abouts
       (きょ) () ()、そこ () (へん)
      kyōra, sokora hen
      roughly today, that area around there
    Usage notes[edit]

    Often spelled in hiragana, as .

    References[edit]

    1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
    2. 2.0 2.1 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
    3. 3.0 3.1 1995, 大辞泉 (Daijisen) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan, →ISBN

    Korean[edit]

    Hanja[edit]

    (deung)

    • Eumhun:
      • Sound (hangeul): (revised: deung, McCune–Reischauer: tŭng, Yale: tung)
      • Name (hangeul): 무리 (Yale: mulitung)
    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    Vietnamese[edit]

    Han character[edit]

    (đẳng, đấng, đứng)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.