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Translingual[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *doːɡ): semantic  + phonetic  ‎(OC *djoɡ)

Han character[edit]

(radical 94 +13, 16 strokes, cangjie input 大竹田中戈 (KHWLI), four-corner 46227, composition)

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 719, character 25
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 20725
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1130, character 23
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 2, page 1372, character 3
  • Unihan data for U+7368

Chinese[edit]

trad.
simp.

Pronunciation[edit]


Middle Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Character (), Pronunciation 1/1

Initial: (7)
Final: (3)
Tone: Checked (Ø)

Openness: Open
Division: I
Fanqie:

Expected Mandarin reflex: dú
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Pan
Wuyun
Shao
Rongfen
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Li
Rong
Wang
Li
Bernard
Karlgren
/duk̚/ /duk̚/ /duk̚/ /dəwk̚/ /duk̚/ /duk̚/ /dʱuk̚/
Old Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character Modern Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle Chinese Old Chinese English
‹ duwk › /*[d]ˤok/ alone; only

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

  • Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
  • Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
  • Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
  • Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;
  • Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character No. Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
Corresponding
MC rime
Old Chinese Notes
11818 0 /*doːɡ/

Definitions[edit]

  1. alone, single, solitary
    獨自独自 (dúzì, “by oneself”)
  2. the old and childless

Compounds[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(uncommon “Hyōgai” kanjikyūjitai kanji, shinjitai form )

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Readings[edit]


Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

‎(dok) (hangeul , revised dok, McCune-Reischauer tok, Yale tok)

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Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(độc, dọc)

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