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U+8B58, 識
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-8B58

[U+8B57]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+8B59]
U+F9FC, 識
CJK COMPATIBILITY IDEOGRAPH-F9FC

[U+F9FB]
CJK Compatibility Ideographs
[U+F9FD]

Translingual[edit]

Japanese
Simplified
Traditional

Han character[edit]

(Kangxi radical 149, +12, 19 strokes, cangjie input 卜口卜戈日 (YRYIA), four-corner 03650, composition)

Derived characters[edit]

Related characters[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 1181, character 17
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 35974
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1644, character 28
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 6, page 4019, character 16
  • Unihan data for U+8B58

Chinese[edit]

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Western Zhou Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Bronze inscriptions Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
識-bronze.svg 識-seal.svg 識-bigseal.svg

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *tjɯɡs, *hljɯɡ): semantic (say) + phonetic (OC *tjɯɡ).

Etymology 1[edit]

trad.
simp. *
alternative forms 𧨺
𧬣
𧥾

Pronunciation[edit]



Rime
Character
Reading # 2/2
Initial () (26)
Final () (134)
Tone (調) Checked (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ɕɨk̚/
Pan
Wuyun
/ɕɨk̚/
Shao
Rongfen
/ɕiek̚/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ɕik̚/
Li
Rong
/ɕiək̚/
Wang
Li
/ɕĭək̚/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ɕi̯ək̚/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
shi
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
sik1
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/2
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
shí
Middle
Chinese
‹ syik ›
Old
Chinese
/*s-tək/
English know

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 2/2
No. 17258
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*hljɯɡ/

Definitions[edit]

  1. to know; to realise; to be aware
  2. (Cantonese, Hakka, dialectal Wu) to recognise; to be familiar with; to know (especially someone or how to do something)
    普通話普通話 [Cantonese, trad.]
    普通话普通话 [Cantonese, simp.]
    ngo5 m4 sik1 pou2 tung1 waa6-2. ngo5 m4 sik1 gong2 pou2 tung1 waa6-2. [Jyutping]
    I don't know Mandarin. I don't know how to speak Mandarin.
    中國人中國人做生意 [Cantonese, trad.]
    中国人中国人做生意 [Cantonese, simp.]
    zung1 gwok3 jan4 hou2 sik1 sik6. zung1 gwok3 jan4 hou2 sik1 zou6 saang1 ji3. [Jyutping]
    Chinese people really know how to eat (to appreciate, to be discerning, to enjoy, to be skilled, to savor). Chinese are good at business.
  3. to appreciate; to recognise the worth of
  4. to distinguish; to discriminate
  5. knowledge; experience
  6. (Buddhism) mind; consciousness; viññāṇa
  7. bosom friend; acquaintance
  8. thought; awareness
  9. Alternative form of (shì, “just now”).
Synonyms[edit]

Compounds[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

trad.
simp. *

Pronunciation[edit]



Rime
Character
Reading # 1/2
Initial () (23)
Final () (19)
Tone (調) Departing (H)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/t͡ɕɨH/
Pan
Wuyun
/t͡ɕɨH/
Shao
Rongfen
/t͡ɕieH/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/cɨH/
Li
Rong
/t͡ɕiəH/
Wang
Li
/t͡ɕĭəH/
Bernard
Karlgren
/t͡ɕiH/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
zhì
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
zi3
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 2/2
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
zhì
Middle
Chinese
‹ tsyiH ›
Old
Chinese
/*tək-s/
English remember, commemorate

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/2
No. 17244
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*tjɯɡs/
Notes

Definitions[edit]

  1. to put a mark
  2. to remember
  3. mark; sign
  4. flag
  5. raised words on an ancient bell or cauldron

Compounds[edit]

Etymology 3[edit]

trad.
simp. *

Pronunciation[edit]


Note:
  • Zhangzhou:
    • pat - only “to know”.
  • (Teochew)
  • Definitions[edit]

    1. (Min Nan) Alternative form of (“to know”).

    References[edit]


    Japanese[edit]

    Shinjitai
    Kyūjitai
    [1][2]

    識󠄂
    +&#xE0102;?
    (Hanyo-Denshi)
    (Moji_Joho)
    U8b58-kyu.svg
    The displayed kanji may be different from the image due to your environment.
    See here for details.

    Kanji[edit]

    (grade 5 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    1. discriminating
    2. know
    3. write

    Readings[edit]

    From Middle Chinese (MC ɕɨk̚); compare Mandarin (shí):

    • Go-on: しき (shiki, Jōyō)
    • Kan-on: しょく (shoku)

    From Middle Chinese (MC t͡ɕɨH); compare Mandarin (zhì):

    From native Japanese roots:

    References[edit]

    1. ^ 1914, 漢和大辭書 (Kanwa Dai Jisho, “The Great Kanji-Japanese Dictionary”) (in Japanese), page 1995 (paper), page 1049 (digital), Tōkyō: 興文社 (Kōbunsha)
    2. ^ 1927, 新漢和辭典 (Shin Kanwa Jiten, “The New Kanji-Japanese Dictionary”) (in Japanese), page 1139 (paper), page 582 (digital), Ōsaka: 松雲堂 (Shōundō)

    Korean[edit]

    Etymology 1[edit]

    From Middle Chinese (MC ɕɨk̚).

    Historical Readings
    Dongguk Jeongun Reading
    Dongguk Jeongun, 1448 Recorded as Middle Korean 식〮 (Yale: sík) in Dongguk Jeongun (東國正韻 / 동국정운), 1448.
    Middle Korean
    Text Eumhun
    Gloss (hun) Reading
    Hunmong Jahoe, 1527[2] Recorded as Middle Korean (sik) (Yale: sik) in Sinjeung Yuhap (新增類合 / 신증유합), 1576.

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Hanja[edit]

    Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

    Wikisource

    (eumhun (al sik))

    1. Hanja form? of (knowing).

    Compounds[edit]

    Etymology 2[edit]

    From Middle Chinese (MC t͡ɕɨH).

    Historical Readings
    Dongguk Jeongun Reading
    Dongguk Jeongun, 1448 Recorded as Middle Korean 징〮 (Yale: ?) in Dongguk Jeongun (東國正韻 / 동국정운), 1448.
    Middle Korean
    Text Eumhun
    Gloss (hun) Reading
    Hunmong Jahoe, 1527[3] ᄉᆡᆼ각[1] Recorded as Middle Korean (ci) (Yale: ci) in Sinjeung Yuhap (新增類合 / 신증유합), 1576.
    1. ^ 去聲

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Hanja[edit]

    (eumhun 적을 (jeogeul ji))

    1. Hanja form? of (writing; mark).

    Compounds[edit]

    References[edit]

    • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [4]

    Vietnamese[edit]

    Han character[edit]

    : Hán Nôm readings: thức

    1. chữ Hán form of thức (consciousness).