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See also: and
U+8A00, 言
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-8A00
觿
[U+89FF]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+8A01]

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
言-order.gif
Japanese
Simplified
Traditional

Alternative forms[edit]

Note that in Japanese and Korean (printed forms), the component on top is written (as found in the Kangxi dictionary). In traditional/simplified Chinese and Vietnamese, the top component is written . In written Japanese, the top component may be written either , or (small vertical stroke).

Han character[edit]

(radical 149, +0, 7 strokes, cangjie input 卜一一口 (YMMR), four-corner 00601, composition𠄠(GHTV) or ⿱(JK))

  1. Kangxi radical #149, .

Derived characters[edit]

See also[edit]

  • (yán) (when used as a left Chinese radical).

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 1146, character 1
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 35205
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1612, character 20
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 6, page 3936, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+8A00

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
言-oracle.svg 言-bronze.svg 言-seal.svg 言-bigseal.svg

Ideogram (指事): was created by adding a mark to to indicate movement of the tongue[1]. This indicates speech where is a mouth () with a tongue sticking out.

Shuowen: Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *ŋan): phonetic  + semantic  (mouth) (erroneous).

Etymology[edit]

According to Schuessler (2007: 74) this word is derived from (OC *ŋaʔ, “to speak”) + -n nominal suffix.

Pronunciation[edit]



  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /iɛn³⁵/
Harbin /ian²⁴/
Tianjin /ian⁴⁵/
Jinan /iã⁴²/
Qingdao /iã⁴²/
Zhengzhou /ian⁴²/
Xi'an /iã²⁴/
Xining /iã²⁴/
Yinchuan /ian⁵³/
Lanzhou /iɛ̃n⁵³/
Ürümqi /ian⁵¹/
Wuhan /iɛn²¹³/
Chengdu /ian³¹/
Guiyang /ian²¹/
Kunming /iɛ̃³¹/
Nanjing /ien²⁴/
Hefei /iĩ⁵⁵/
Jin Taiyuan /ie¹¹/
Pingyao /ȵie̞¹³/
Hohhot /ie³¹/
Wu Shanghai /ɦi²³/
Suzhou /ɦiɪ¹³/
Hangzhou /ɦiẽ̞²¹³/
Wenzhou /ȵi³¹/
Hui Shexian /ne⁴⁴/
Tunxi /ȵiɛ⁴⁴/
Xiang Changsha /iẽ¹³/
Xiangtan /ȵiẽ¹²/
Gan Nanchang /ȵiɛn⁴⁵/
Hakka Meixian /ŋian¹¹/
Taoyuan /ŋien¹¹/
Cantonese Guangzhou /jin²¹/
Nanning /jin²¹/
Hong Kong /jin²¹/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /gian³⁵/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /ŋyoŋ⁵³/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /ŋyiŋ³³/
Shantou (Min Nan) /ŋaŋ⁵⁵/
Haikou (Min Nan) /ŋin³¹/
/ŋin²¹³/
/kɔŋ²¹³/ 訓講

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (31)
Final () (65)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ŋɨɐn/
Pan
Wuyun
/ŋiɐn/
Shao
Rongfen
/ŋiɐn/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ŋɨan/
Li
Rong
/ŋiɐn/
Wang
Li
/ŋĭɐn/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ŋɨ̯ɐn/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
yán
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/4 2/4 3/4 4/4
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
yán yán yán yán
Middle
Chinese
‹ ngjon › ‹ ngjon › ‹ ngjon › ‹ ngjon ›
Old
Chinese
/*ŋa[n]/ /*ŋa[n]/ /*ŋa[n]/ /*ŋa[r]/
English (a particle) I, we speak; speech tall

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 14271
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
1
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*ŋan/

Definitions[edit]

  1. to say; to speak; to talk
    /   ―  yányu  ―  to speak; to tell
    三思 / 三思 [Classical Chinese]  ―  sānsī ér hòu yán [Pinyin]  ―  Think before you speak.
  2. to discuss; to comment
  3. to state; to describe; to explain
  4. to write down; to record
  5. to ask; to inquire
  6. to inform; to tell; to let know
  7. spoken language; speech
    /   ―  yán  ―  language
    /   ―  nuòyán  ―  promise
    /   ―  yán  ―  to make a speech
    /   ―  yáoyán  ―  fabricated rumor
    洋洋萬 / 洋洋万  ―  yángyángwànyán  ―  to be very lengthy (of an article, essay)
    /   ―  Wǒ néng liú ge yán ma?  ―  Can I leave a message?
  8. opinion; view; perspective
  9. words; language appropriate to the occasion
  10. proposal; idea; plan
  11. government decree; order
  12. character; word
  13. sentence; writing; works
  14. A meaningless sentence-initial mood particle.
  15. A surname​.

Synonyms[edit]

Compounds[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

  1. to say
  2. speech

Readings[edit]

Compounds[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Kanji in this term
げん
Grade: 2
on’yomi

From Middle Chinese (ngjon, speech).

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

(げん) (gen

  1. word
  2. (linguistics) parole
Synonyms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Kanji in this term
こと
Grade: 2
kun’yomi

Cognate with (koto, thing).[4]

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

(こと) (koto

  1. word

References[edit]

  1. ^ Referenced from http://www.guoxuedashi.com/kangxi/pic.php?f=ziyuanlxq&p=167
  2. 2.0 2.1 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  3. ^ 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN
  4. ^ 1995, 大辞泉 (Daijisen) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan, →ISBN

Korean[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Middle Chinese (MC ŋɨɐn). Recorded as Middle Korean  (Yale: en) in Hunmong Jahoe (訓蒙字會 / 훈몽자회), 1527.

Hanja[edit]

Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

Wikisource

(eumhun 말씀 (malsseum eon))

  1. Hanja form? of (word).
  2. Hanja form? of (speech).
Compounds[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Hanja[edit]

(eumhun 심사화평할 (simsahwapyeonghal eun))

  1. (archaic) Hanja form? of (peaceful demeanor).

References[edit]

  • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [1]

Okinawan[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

  1. to say
  2. speech

Readings[edit]

Compounds[edit]

Noun[edit]

(hiragana くとぅ, rōmaji kutu)

  1. word

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(ngôn, ngỏn, ngộn, ngổn, ngồn, ngủn)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.