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See also: and
U+8A00, 言
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-8A00
觿
[U+89FF]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+8A01]

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
言-order.gif

Alternative forms[edit]

Note that in Japanese and Korean (printed forms), the component on top is written (as found in the Kangxi dictionary). In traditional/simplified Chinese and Vietnamese, the top component is written . In written Japanese, the top component may be written either , or (small vertical stroke).

Han character[edit]

(radical 149 +0, 7 strokes, cangjie input 卜一一口 (YMMR), four-corner 00601, composition(GHTV) or ⿱(JK))

  1. Kangxi radical #149, .

Derived characters[edit]

See also[edit]

  • (yán) (when used as a left Chinese radical).

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 1146, character 1
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 35205
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1612, character 20
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 6, page 3936, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+8A00

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Large seal script Small seal script
言-oracle.svg 言-bronze.svg 言-bigseal.svg 言-seal.svg
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*ŋrans
*ŋrans
*ŋan
*ŋan
*ŋrɯn
*ŋrɯn
*ŋrɯn
*ŋrɯn, *ŋɯn

Pictogram (象形): Pictograph of words emerging from a mouth () or a man () speaking with his mouth ().

Shuowen: Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *ŋan): phonetic  + semantic  (mouth).

Pronunciation[edit]



  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /iɛn³⁵/
Harbin /ian²⁴/
Tianjin /ian⁴⁵/
Jinan /iã⁴²/
Qingdao /iã⁴²/
Zhengzhou /ian⁴²/
Xi'an /iã²⁴/
Xining /iã²⁴/
Yinchuan /ian⁵³/
Lanzhou /iɛ̃n⁵³/
Ürümqi /ian⁵¹/
Wuhan /iɛn²¹³/
Chengdu /ian³¹/
Guiyang /ian²¹/
Kunming /iɛ̃³¹/
Nanjing /ien²⁴/
Hefei /iĩ⁵⁵/
Jin Taiyuan /ie¹¹/
Pingyao /ȵie̞¹³/
Hohhot /ie³¹/
Wu Shanghai /ɦi²³/
Suzhou /ɦiɪ¹³/
Hangzhou /ɦiẽ̞²¹³/
Wenzhou /ȵi³¹/
Hui Shexian /ne⁴⁴/
Tunxi /ȵiɛ⁴⁴/
Xiang Changsha /iẽ¹³/
Xiangtan /ȵiẽ¹²/
Gan Nanchang /ȵiɛn⁴⁵/
Hakka Meixian /ŋian¹¹/
Taoyuan /ŋien¹¹/
Cantonese Guangzhou /jin²¹/
Nanning /jin²¹/
Hong Kong /jin²¹/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /gian³⁵/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /ŋyoŋ⁵³/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /ŋyiŋ³³/
Shantou (Min Nan) /ŋaŋ⁵⁵/
Haikou (Min Nan) /ŋin³¹/
/ŋin²¹³/
/kɔŋ²¹³/ 訓講

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (31)
Final () (65)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ŋɨɐn/
Pan
Wuyun
/ŋiɐn/
Shao
Rongfen
/ŋiɐn/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ŋɨan/
Li
Rong
/ŋiɐn/
Wang
Li
/ŋĭɐn/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ŋɨ̯ɐn/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
yán
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/4 2/4 3/4 4/4
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
yán yán yán yán
Middle
Chinese
‹ ngjon › ‹ ngjon › ‹ ngjon › ‹ ngjon ›
Old
Chinese
/*ŋa[n]/ /*ŋa[n]/ /*ŋa[n]/ /*ŋa[r]/
English (a particle) I, we speak; speech tall

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 14271
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
1
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*ŋan/

Definitions[edit]

  1. to say; to speak; to talk
  2. to discuss; to comment
  3. to state; to describe; to explain
  4. to write down; to record
  5. to ask; to inquire
  6. to inform; to tell; to let know
  7. spoken language; speech
  8. opinion; view; perspective
  9. words; language appropriate to the occasion
  10. proposal; idea; plan
  11. government decree; order
  12. character; word
  13. sentence; writing; works
  14. meaningless sentence-initial mood particle
  15. A surname​.

Synonyms[edit]

Dialectal synonyms of (“to say, to speak”) [map]
Variety Location Words
Classical Chinese
Formal (Written Standard Chinese)
Mandarin Beijing
Taiwan
Tianjin
Jinan
Xi'an
Wuhan
Chengdu
Hefei
Cantonese Guangzhou
Hong Kong
Yangjiang
Gan Nanchang
Hakka Meixian
Miaoli (N. Sixian)
Liudui (S. Sixian)
Hsinchu (Hailu)
Dongshi (Dabu)
Zhuolan (Raoping)
Yunlin (Zhao'an)
Jin Taiyuan
Min Bei Jian'ou
Min Dong Fuzhou
Min Nan Xiamen
Quanzhou
Zhangzhou
Taipei
Chaozhou
Wu Shanghai
Suzhou
Wenzhou
Xiang Changsha
Shuangfeng

Compounds[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

  1. to say
  2. speech

Readings[edit]

Compounds[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Kanji in this term
げん
Grade: 2
on’yomi

From Middle Chinese (ngjon, speech).

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

(hiragana げん, rōmaji gen)

  1. word
  2. (linguistics) parole
Synonyms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Kanji in this term
こと
Grade: 2
kun’yomi

Cognate with (koto, thing).[3]

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

(hiragana こと, rōmaji koto)

  1. word

References[edit]

  1. 1.0 1.1 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, ISBN 4-385-13905-9
  2. ^ 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, ISBN 978-4-14-011112-3
  3. ^ 1995, 大辞泉 (Daijisen) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan, ISBN 4-09-501211-0

Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

(eon, eun) (hangeul , , revised eon, eun, McCune-Reischauer ŏn, ŭn, Yale en, un)

  1. word

Compounds[edit]


Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(ngôn, ngỏn, ngộn, ngổn, ngồn, ngủn)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.