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U+7559, 留
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-7559

[U+7558]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+755A]
U+F9CD, 留
CJK COMPATIBILITY IDEOGRAPH-F9CD

[U+F9CC]
CJK Compatibility Ideographs
[U+F9CE]

Translingual[edit]

Han character[edit]

(Kangxi radical 102, +5, 10 strokes, cangjie input 竹竹田 (HHW), four-corner 77602, composition ⿱⿰𠂎)

Derived characters[edit]

Descendants[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 761, character 5
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 21808
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1171, character 1
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 4, page 2537, character 4
  • Unihan data for U+7559

Chinese[edit]

Glyph origin[edit]

In bronze inscriptions, phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *m·ru, *m·rus): phonetic (OC *mruːʔ) + semantic (field). Later in small seal script, phonetic (OC *luʔ) + semantic .

Pronunciation 1[edit]

simp. and trad.
2nd round simp.
alternative forms


Note: liù - "belly fat".
Note:
  • lâu - vernacular;
  • liû - literary.
Note:
  • liu5 - literary;
  • lao5 - vernacular.
  • Wu

  • Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    Initial () (37)
    Final () (136)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /lɨu/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /liu/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /liəu/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /luw/
    Li
    Rong
    /liu/
    Wang
    Li
    /lĭəu/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /li̯ə̯u/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    liú
    Expected
    Cantonese
    Reflex
    lau4
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    liú
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ ljuw ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*C.ru/
    English stay, remain

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    No. 8882
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    1
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*m·ru/
    Notes

    Definitions[edit]

    1. to stay; to remain
    2. to ask someone to stay; to detain
    3. to keep; to save; to hold in reserve; to retain; to maintain
    4. to leave behind (a package, a message, an impression, etc.)
      可以電話 [MSC, trad.]
      可以电话 [MSC, simp.]
      Nǐ kěyǐ gěi wǒ liú ge diànhuà ma? [Pinyin]
      Can you give me your phone number?
    5. Short for 留學留学 (liúxué, “to study abroad”).
        ―  liúměi  ―  to study in the US
    6. to accept (a gift)
    7. to allow to grow
      鬍子 / 胡子  ―  liú húzi  ―  to grow a beard
      頭髮 [Cantonese, trad.]
      头发 [Cantonese, simp.]
      zoeng1 tau4 faat3 lau4 dou3 lok6 jiu1 [Jyutping]
      have one's hair grow to waist-length
      頭髮 / 头发 [Cantonese]  ―  lau4 coeng4 tau4 faat3 [Jyutping]  ―  to let one's hair grow long
    8. to concentrate (on something)
        ―  liúxīn  ―  to look out for
        ―  liúshén  ―  to take care; to be careful
    9. Alternative form of (liú).
    10. A surname​.

    Compounds[edit]

    Pronunciation 2[edit]

    simp. and trad.



    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    Initial () (37)
    Final () (136)
    Tone (調) Departing (H)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /lɨuH/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /liuH/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /liəuH/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /luwH/
    Li
    Rong
    /liuH/
    Wang
    Li
    /lĭəuH/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /li̯ə̯uH/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    liù
    Expected
    Cantonese
    Reflex
    lau6
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    No. 8905
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    1
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*m·rus/

    Definitions[edit]

    1. (obsolete) to wait; to await

    Pronunciation 3[edit]

    simp. and trad.


    Definitions[edit]

    1. Alternative name for (mǎo).

    References[edit]


    Japanese[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    (grade 5 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    1. detain
    2. fasten
    3. halt
    4. stop
    5. ateji (当て字) for ruble (unit of currency)

    Readings[edit]

    Compounds[edit]


    Korean[edit]

    Hanja[edit]

    (eumhun 머무를 (meomureul ryu), South Korea 머무를 (meomureul yu))

    1. Hanja form? of (stay).

    Compounds[edit]


    Old Korean[edit]

    Alternative forms[edit]

    • (logographic variant used in Idu and Gugyeol texts)

    Particle[edit]

    (*-lwo)

    1. to; towards (directional case marker)
    2. by; with; using (instrumental case marker)

    Reconstruction notes[edit]

    Conventionally reconstructed as *-lwo after the Middle Korean reflex, although the source Chinese readings suggest a different vowel. Many scholars suggest *-lwu instead.

    Usage notes[edit]

    留 takes the vowel-initial allomorph 乙留 or 乙以 after a consonant, corresponding exactly to the Middle and Modern Korean allomorph 으로 (Yale: ulo) also appearing after a consonant.

    Descendants[edit]

    • Middle Korean: (-lwo)
      • Korean: (ro)

    References[edit]

    • 이승재 (Lee Seung-jae) (2000), “차자표기 자료의 격조사 연구 [Study of case markers in the Chinese-based orthography [of Korean]]”, in Gugeo gungmunhak, volume 127, pages 107–132
    • 박지용 外 (Park Ji-yong et al.) (2012) 향가 해독 자료집 [A Sourcebook of Hyangga Interpretations], Seoul National University, pages 199—200

    Vietnamese[edit]

    Han character[edit]

    : Hán Nôm readings: lưu

    1. to stay
    2. to detain; keep
    3. (computing); to save files