言う

Definition from Wiktionary, the free dictionary
Jump to: navigation, search

Japanese[edit]

Kanji in this term

Grade: 2
kun'yomi

Etymology[edit]

From Old Japanese.[1]

/ipu//iɸu//*iwu//iu/

Medial /h/ regularly changed from [p][ɸ][w]. Japanese never distinguished between /wu/ and /u/, so that automatically becomes [u]. The /w/ only surfaces in the negative form of iwanai, where the phoneme /wa/ exists. Surface forms /iwimasu/ and /iwemasu/ automatically become /iimasu/ and /iemasu/ since Japanese no longer distinguishes /wi, we/ from /i, e/.

Possibly related to Korean (ip, “mouth”).

Pronunciation[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Verb[edit]

言う ‎(transitive, godan conjugation, hiragana いう, romaji iu, historical hiragana いふ)

  1. to say, to tell somebody
    • circa 762, Shōsōin Man'yōgana Monjo
      和可夜之奈比乃 可波利爾波 於保末之末須 美奈美乃末知奈流奴乎 宇氣與止 於保止己可都可佐乃比止伊布 之可流可由恵爾 序禮宇氣牟比止良 久流末毛太之米弖 末都利伊禮之米太末布日 與禮良毛伊太佐牟 之可毛己乃波古美於可牟毛 阿夜布可流 可由恵爾 波夜久末可利太末布日之 於保己可ツ可佐奈比氣奈波 比止乃太氣太可比止 □己止波宇氣都流
    • circa 890, Taketori Monogatari (page 7)
      「おのが生さぬ子なれば、心にも従はずなんある」と言ひて、月日過ぐす。
    • 10th century: Ise Monogatari (chapter 6, page 84)
      「あなや」といひけれど、神鳴るさはぎにえ聞かざりけり。
     (わたし) ()ようにしなさい。
    Watashi ga iu yō ni shinasai.
    Do as I tell you.
  2. to call, to name, to give a name
    • circa 890, Taketori Monogatari (page 3)
      いまは昔、竹取の翁といふもの有けり。
    この動物 (どうぶつ)日本語 (にほんご) (なん) ()いますか。
    Kono dōbutsu wa Nihongo de nan to iimasu ka.
    What do you call this animal in Japanese?

言う ‎(intransitive, godan conjugation, hiragana いう, romaji iu, historical hiragana いふ)

  1. to cry, to call, to make a noise (such as an animal)
    ニャーニャー () (ねこ)
    nyānyā iu neko
    a mewing cat

Idioms[edit]

Conjugation[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
  2. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, ISBN 4-385-13905-9