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See also: and
U+4FE1, 信
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-4FE1

[U+4FE0]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+4FE2]

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
信-order.gif

Han character[edit]

(radical 9, +7, 9 strokes, cangjie input 人卜一口 (OYMR), four-corner 20261, composition)

Derived characters[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 105, character 25
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 707
  • Dae Jaweon: page 224, character 2
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 1, page 165, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+4FE1

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.
alternative forms
2nd‐round simp.

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character



References:

Mostly from Richard Sears' Chinese Etymology site (authorisation),
which in turn draws data from various collections of ancient forms of Chinese characters, including:

  • Shuowen Jiezi (small seal),
  • Jinwen Bian (bronze inscriptions),
  • Liushutong (Liushutong characters) and
  • Yinxu Jiaguwen Bian (oracle bone script).

Ideogrammic compound (會意):  (person) +  (word) – a person's (truthful) words.

Etymology 1[edit]

Schuessler (2007) reconstructs the Old Chinese minimally as *sin and suggests possible derivation from (OC *winʔ, “to trust; to be true”).

Alternatively, Sagart and Baxter (2012) reconstruct *s-niŋ-s (*s-ni[ŋ]-s in Baxter and Sagart, 2014) and suggest a derivation from (OC *niŋ, “kind”) with the prefix *s-, probably used to increase its valency.

Pronunciation[edit]


Note: lhin1* - “letter”.

  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /ɕin⁵¹/
Harbin /ɕin⁵³/
Tianjin /ɕin⁵³/
Jinan /ɕiẽ²¹/
Qingdao /siə̃⁴²/
Zhengzhou /sin³¹²/
Xi'an /ɕiẽ⁴⁴/
Xining /ɕiə̃²¹³/
Yinchuan /ɕiŋ¹³/
Lanzhou /ɕĩn¹³/
Ürümqi /ɕiŋ²¹³/
Wuhan /ɕin³⁵/
Chengdu /ɕin¹³/
Guiyang /ɕin²¹³/
Kunming /ɕĩ²¹²/
Nanjing /sin⁴⁴/
Hefei /ɕin⁵³/
Jin Taiyuan /ɕiəŋ⁴⁵/
Pingyao /ɕiŋ³⁵/
Hohhot /ɕĩŋ⁵⁵/
Wu Shanghai /ɕiŋ³⁵/
Suzhou /sin⁵¹³/
Hangzhou /ɕin⁴⁴⁵/
Wenzhou /saŋ⁴²/
Hui Shexian /siʌ̃³²⁴/
Tunxi /sin⁴²/
Xiang Changsha /sin⁵⁵/
Xiangtan /sin⁵⁵/
Gan Nanchang /ɕin⁴⁵/
Hakka Meixian /sin⁵³/
Taoyuan /sin⁵⁵/
Cantonese Guangzhou /søn³³/
Nanning /ɬɐn³³/
Hong Kong /søn³³/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /sin²¹/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /sɛiŋ²¹²/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /seiŋ³³/
Shantou (Min Nan) /siŋ²¹³/
Haikou (Min Nan) /tin³⁵/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (16)
Final () (43)
Tone (調) Departing (H)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/siɪnH/
Pan
Wuyun
/sinH/
Shao
Rongfen
/sjenH/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/sinH/
Li
Rong
/siĕnH/
Wang
Li
/sĭĕnH/
Bernard
Karlgren
/si̯ĕnH/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
xìn
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
xìn
Middle
Chinese
‹ sinH ›
Old
Chinese
/*s-ni[ŋ]-s/
English truthful

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 13849
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
1
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*hljins/
Notes
使

Definitions[edit]

  1. true; accurate; verifiable
  2. truly; indeed
  3. trustworthy
  4. to believe; to trust in something
      ―  Wǒ cái bù xìn ne.  ―  I don't believe it/you.
  5. trust; confidence; faith
      ―  xìnrèn  ―  trust
    稱義 / 称义  ―  yīn xìn chēngyì  ―  to be justified by faith
  6. to believe in (a faith); to be religious in
    父親佛教 / 父亲佛教  ―  Wǒ fùqīn xìn fójiào.  ―  My father is a Buddhist. (lit. My father believes in Buddhism.)
  7. at will
    口雌黃 / 口雌黄  ―  xìnkǒu cíhuáng  ―  to make irresponsible remarks (lit. to correct someone with at will)
  8. letter (written communication) (Classifier: m c mn)
  9. message; news; information
      ―  xìn  ―  news, message
  10. evidence
      ―  xìn  ―  token, keepsake
  11. courier; messenger
  12. (mineralogy) arsenolite
  13. A surname​: Xin
Synonyms[edit]
  • (true):
edit
  • (to believe):
edit
  • (to believe in a faith): 信仰 (xìnyǎng)
  • (letter):
edit
  • (information):
edit
  • (evidence):
edit

Compounds[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Via 假借 (jiǎjiè) (borrowing)

Pronunciation[edit]



  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /ɕin⁵¹/
Harbin /ɕin⁵³/
Tianjin /ɕin⁵³/
Jinan /ɕiẽ²¹/
Qingdao /siə̃⁴²/
Zhengzhou /sin³¹²/
Xi'an /ɕiẽ⁴⁴/
Xining /ɕiə̃²¹³/
Yinchuan /ɕiŋ¹³/
Lanzhou /ɕĩn¹³/
Ürümqi /ɕiŋ²¹³/
Wuhan /ɕin³⁵/
Chengdu /ɕin¹³/
Guiyang /ɕin²¹³/
Kunming /ɕĩ²¹²/
Nanjing /sin⁴⁴/
Hefei /ɕin⁵³/
Jin Taiyuan /ɕiəŋ⁴⁵/
Pingyao /ɕiŋ³⁵/
Hohhot /ɕĩŋ⁵⁵/
Wu Shanghai /ɕiŋ³⁵/
Suzhou /sin⁵¹³/
Hangzhou /ɕin⁴⁴⁵/
Wenzhou /saŋ⁴²/
Hui Shexian /siʌ̃³²⁴/
Tunxi /sin⁴²/
Xiang Changsha /sin⁵⁵/
Xiangtan /sin⁵⁵/
Gan Nanchang /ɕin⁴⁵/
Hakka Meixian /sin⁵³/
Taoyuan /sin⁵⁵/
Cantonese Guangzhou /søn³³/
Nanning /ɬɐn³³/
Hong Kong /søn³³/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /sin²¹/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /sɛiŋ²¹²/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /seiŋ³³/
Shantou (Min Nan) /siŋ²¹³/
Haikou (Min Nan) /tin³⁵/

Definitions[edit]

  1. Alternative form of (shēn, “to express; to state”).
    春秋 [Classical Chinese, trad.]
    春秋 [Classical Chinese, simp.]
    From: Commentary of Guliang, circa 206 BCE– 9 CE
    “Chūnqiū” guì yì ér bù guì huì, shēn dào ér bù shēn xié. [Pinyin]
    The Spring and Autumn Annals treasure deeds of righteousness rather than the dispensation of favour, and advocate the just principles instead of corrupt ways.
  2. Alternative form of (shēn, “to extend”).
    尺蠖 [Classical Chinese, trad. and simp.]
    From: I Ching, 3rd – 2nd millennia BCE
    Chǐhuò zhī qū, yǐ qiú shēn yě. [Pinyin]
    An inchworm contracts, so that it may extend.

Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(grade 4 “Kyōiku” kanji)

Readings[edit]

Compounds[edit]

Noun[edit]

(しん) (shin

  1. trust, faith
    (しん)()く、(しん)()
    shin o oku, shin o eru
    to put one's trust (in something), to gain someone's trust

Related terms[edit]


Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

(eumhun 믿을 (mideul sin))

  1. Hanja form? of (believe/trust).

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

: Hán Nôm readings: tín, tin

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

References[edit]