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See also:
U+51FD, 函
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-51FD

[U+51FC]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+51FE]

Translingual[edit]

Han character[edit]

(Kangxi radical 17, +6, 8 strokes, cangjie input 山弓水 (UNE) or 弓山水 (NUE), four-corner 10772, composition )

Derived characters[edit]

References[edit]

  • Kangxi Dictionary: page 135, character 16
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 1826
  • Dae Jaweon: page 303, character 10
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 1, page 309, character 9
  • Unihan data for U+51FD

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.
alternative forms

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Chu slip and silk script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts

Originally , a pictogram (象形) – an upside-down arrow stored inside a box with one or two handles.

Pronunciation[edit]


Note: hang5 - Chenghai.

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/2 2/2
Initial () (33) (33)
Final () (159) (151)
Tone (調) Level (Ø) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open Open
Division () I II
Fanqie
Baxter hom heam
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ɦʌm/ /ɦˠɛm/
Pan
Wuyun
/ɦəm/ /ɦᵚæm/
Shao
Rongfen
/ɣɒm/ /ɣɐm/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ɦəm/ /ɦəɨm/
Li
Rong
/ɣᴀm/ /ɣɐm/
Wang
Li
/ɣɒm/ /ɣɐm/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ɣăm/ /ɣăm/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
hán xián
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
ham4 haam4
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
hán
Middle
Chinese
‹ hom ›
Old
Chinese
/*Cə-m-kˁ[ə]m/
English envelop, contain

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/2 2/2
No. 4861 4869
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
3 3
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*ɡuːm/ /*ɡruːm/

Definitions[edit]

  1. to include
  2. box
  3. (formal) letter (Classifier: m)
      ―  hán  ―  to send a letter

Synonyms[edit]

Compounds[edit]

References[edit]

Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(“Jinmeiyō” kanji used for names)

  1. a box-shaped receptacle, e.g. a coin bank or letter box (e.g. 銭函, 投函する)
  2. to insert [into a container] (cf. 入れる, 容れる)
  3. a suit of armor (more commonly )

Readings[edit]

Compounds[edit]

Definitions[edit]

Kanji in this term
はこ
Jinmeiyō
kun’yomi
For pronunciation and definitions of – see the following entry.
はこ3
[noun] [from 720] a box: a container with a lid
[noun] [from 1120] (archaic) a chamber pot for feces; (by extension) feces
[noun] [from 1771] (archaic) a shamisen case; (by extension) a shamisen; (by extension) a man or other geisha who accompanies a geisha and carries their shamisen case
[noun] (slang) small ライブハウス (raibu hausu, music venue)
[noun] (Internet slang) Xbox
Alternative spellings
, , ,
(This term, , is an alternative spelling of the above term.)

Korean[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Middle Chinese (MC hom|heam).

Historical Readings
Dongguk Jeongun Reading
Dongguk Jeongun, 1448 ᅘᅡᆷ (Yale: hhàm)
Middle Korean
Text Eumhun
Gloss (hun) Reading
Hunmong Jahoe, 1527[2] 함〯 (Yale: hǎm) (Yale: hàm)

Pronunciation[edit]

  • (SK Standard/Seoul) IPA(key): [ha̠(ː)m]
  • Phonetic hangul: [(ː)]
    • Though still prescribed in Standard Korean, most speakers in both Koreas no longer distinguish vowel length.

Hanja[edit]

Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

Wikisource

(eumhun (ham ham))

  1. Hanja form? of (box). [noun]

Compounds[edit]

References[edit]

  • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [3]

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

: Hán Nôm readings: hòm, hàm

References[edit]