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See also: 西, , and
U+56DB, 四
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-56DB

[U+56DA]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+56DC]
Commons:Category
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Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
四-order.gif

Han character[edit]

(radical 31, +2, 5 strokes, cangjie input 田金 (WC), four-corner 60210, composition丿(GHTV) or ⿴(JK))

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 216, character 22
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 4682
  • Dae Jaweon: page 439, character 21
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 1, page 710, character 16
  • Unihan data for U+56DB

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.
alternative forms
Wikipedia has articles on:
  • (Written Standard Chinese?)
  • (Cantonese)

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Spring and Autumn Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Bronze inscriptions Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Bronze inscriptions Bronze inscriptions Chu Slip and silk script Qin slip script Shizhoupian script Ancient script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
四-bronze-shang.svg 四-oracle.svg 四-bronze.svg 四-bronze-spring.svg 四-bronze-warring.svg 四-silk.svg 四-slip.svg 四-zhou.svg 四-ancient.svg 四-seal.svg 四-bigseal.svg

The word "four" was written as before Western Zhou and appeared in late Spring and Autumn period. This alternative form was used to prevent confusion of and or in vertical writing. It was standardized in Qin dynasty.

The bronzeware style of the character featured a repositioning of those four lines inside ; this later evolved into the combination used today of (“mouth”) and (“divide”) which meant a dispersal of breath. It could thus be said that four is a borrowed meaning for this character. The original sense is preserved in (OC *hrids), by adding an extra .

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *b-ləj.

Pronunciation[edit]


Note:
  • sei3 - vernacular;
  • si3 - literary (rare).
  • Gan
  • Hakka
  • Jin
  • Min Bei
  • Min Dong
  • Note:
    • sé - vernacular;
    • sé̤ṳ - literary.
  • Min Nan
  • Note:
    • Xiamen, Quanzhou, Zhangzhou, Taiwan, Singapore, Penang:
      • sì - vernacular;
      • sù/sìr - literary.
    • Jinjiang, Philippines:
      • sì - vernacular and literary.
  • (Teochew)
  • Wu
  • Xiang

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (16)
    Final () (15)
    Tone (調) Departing (H)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /siɪH/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /siH/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /sjɪH/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /siH/
    Li
    Rong
    /siH/
    Wang
    Li
    /siH/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /siH/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ sijH ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*s.li[j]-s/
    English four

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 12022
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    1
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*hljids/

    Definitions[edit]

    1. four
    2. (music) la (musical note)
    3. (printing) English; The size of type between 小四 (little 4) and 小三 (little 3), standardized as 14 point.

    Usage notes[edit]

    As superstition, (MC siɪH) is avoided because it is similar to (MC sˠiɪX, “death”) in sound.

    See also[edit]

    Chinese numbers
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 102 103 104 108 1012
    Normal
    (小寫小写)
    亿 (Taiwan)
    萬億万亿 (Mainland China)
    Financial
    (大寫大写)
    Playing cards in Chinese · 撲克牌扑克牌 (pūkèpái) (layout · text)
    40 Asso di picche.jpg 41 Due di picche.jpg 42 Tre di picche.jpg 43 Quattro di picche.jpg 44 Cinque di picche.jpg 45 Sei di picche.jpg 46 Sette di picche.jpg
    尖兒尖儿
    47 Otto di picche.jpg 48 Nove di picche.jpg 49 Dieci di picche.jpg 50 J di picche.jpg 51 Q di picche.jpg 52 K di picche.jpg Jolly Nero.jpg
    鉤兒钩儿 圈兒圈儿, 皮蛋 (regional) K 小王 (black), 大王 (red), 小鬼 (black), 大鬼 (red)

    Compounds[edit]

    Descendants[edit]

    Sino-Xenic ():
    • Japanese: () (shi)
    • Korean: (, sa)
    • Vietnamese: tứ ()

    Others:

    Further reading[edit]


    Japanese[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    (grade 1 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    Readings[edit]

    Compounds[edit]

    Etymology 1[edit]

    Kanji in this term

    Grade: 1
    kun’yomi

    ⟨yo2 → */jə//jo/

    From Old Japanese.

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Numeral[edit]

    () (yo

    Japanese cardinal numbers
     <  3 4 5  > 
        Cardinal :
    1. four, 4
    Derived terms[edit]

    Etymology 2[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    よん
    Grade: 1
    kun’yomi

    Shift from yo above,[1][2] influenced by analogy by the final sound of preceding number (san, three).

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Numeral[edit]

    (よん) (yon

    1. four, 4
    Derived terms[edit]

    Etymology 3[edit]

    Kanji in this term

    Grade: 1
    on’yomi

    /si//ɕi/

    From Middle Chinese (MC siɪH).

    Compare modern Hakka (si).

    Alternative forms[edit]

    • (financial form)

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Numeral[edit]

    () (shi

    1. four, 4

    Usage notes[edit]

    Due to Chinese influence, (shi) is sometimes avoided as it is homonymous to (shi, death).

    Derived terms[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    () (shi

    1. the fourth

    Affix[edit]

    () (shi

    1. four
    2. fourth
    3. quadruple
    4. here and there
    Derived terms[edit]

    Etymology 4[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    すう
    Grade: 1
    Irregular

    From Mandarin ().[1][2][3]

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Numeral[edit]

    (スー) (

    1. four, 4
    Derived terms[edit]

    See also[edit]

    Japanese numbers
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
    Regular (れい) (rei)
    (ゼロ) (zero)
    (いち) (ichi) () (ni) (さん) (san) (よん) (yon)
    () (shi)
    () (go) (ろく) (roku) (なな) (nana)
    (しち) (shichi)
    (はち) (hachi) (きゅう) (kyū)
    () (ku)
    (じゅう) ()
    Formal (いち) (ichi) () (ni) (さん) (san) (じゅう) ()
    90 100 300 600 800 1,000 3,000 8,000 10,000 100,000,000
    Regular (きゅう)(じゅう) (kyūjū) (ひゃく) (hyaku)
    (いっ)(ぴゃく) (ippyaku)
    (さん)(びゃく) (sanbyaku) (ろっ)(ぴゃく) (roppyaku) (はっ)(ぴゃく) (happyaku) (せん) (sen)
    (いっ)(せん) (issen)
    (さん)(ぜん) (sanzen) (はっ)(せん) (hassen) (いち)(まん) (ichiman) (いち)(おく) (ichioku)
    Formal (いち)(まん) (ichiman)
    1012 8×1012 1013 1016 6×1016 8×1016 1017 1018
    (いっ)(ちょう) (itchō) (はっ)(ちょう) (hatchō) (じゅっ)(ちょう) (jutchō) (いっ)(けい) (ikkei) (ろっ)(けい) (rokkei) (はっ)(けい) (hakkei) (じゅっ)(けい) (jukkei) (ひゃっ)(けい) (hyakkei)

    References[edit]

    1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
    2. 2.0 2.1 1995, 大辞泉 (Daijisen) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan, →ISBN
    3. ^ 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan

    Korean[edit]

    Etymology[edit]

    From Middle Chinese (MC siɪH). Recorded as Middle Korean ᄉᆞ (Yale: so) in Hunmong Jahoe (訓蒙字會 / 훈몽자회), 1527.

    Hanja[edit]

    Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

    Wikisource

    (eumhun (neok sa))

    1. Hanja form? of (four).

    Compounds[edit]

    References[edit]

    • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [1]

    Old Japanese[edit]

    Etymology[edit]

    From Proto-Japonic *yə.

    Also used as 借訓 (shakkun) kana for ⟨yo2.

    Numeral[edit]

    (yo2) (kana )

    1. four, 4

    Derived terms[edit]

    Descendants[edit]

    • Japanese: (yo, yon)

    Vietnamese[edit]

    Han character[edit]

    : Hán Việt readings: tứ[1][2][3]
    : Nôm readings: tớ[1][2][4], tứ[2][3], [4]

    1. Hán tự form of tứ (four).
    2. Nôm form of (four; fourth).

    References[edit]