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See also: 西, , and
U+56DB, 四
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-56DB

[U+56DA]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+56DC]
Commons:Category
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Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
四-order.gif

Han character[edit]

(radical 31, +2, 5 strokes, cangjie input 田金 (WC), four-corner 60210, composition)

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 216, character 22
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 4682
  • Dae Jaweon: page 439, character 21
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 1, page 710, character 16
  • Unihan data for U+56DB

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.
alt. forms

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Spring and Autumn Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Bronze inscriptions Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Bronze inscriptions Bronze inscriptions Chu Slip and silk script Qin slip script Ancient script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
四-bronze-shang.svg 四-oracle.svg 四-bronze.svg 四-bronze-spring.svg 四-bronze-warring.svg 四-silk.svg 四-slip.svg 四-ancient.svg 四-seal.svg 四-bigseal.svg
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*l̥ʰids
*hljids
*hljids
*hljids
*hljids
*hljids
*hrids

The word "four" was written as before Western Zhou and appeared in late Spring and Autumn period. This alternative form was used to prevent confusion of and or in vertical writing. It was standardized in Qin dynasty.

The bronzeware style of the character featured a repositioning of those four lines inside ; this later evolved into the combination used today of (“mouth”) and (“divide”) which meant a dispersal of breath. It could thus be said that four is a borrowed meaning for this character. The original sense is preserved in (OC *hrids), by adding an extra .

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *b-ləj.

As superstition, (MC siɪH) is avoided because it is similar to (MC sˠiɪX, “death”) in sound.

Pronunciation[edit]


Note: si3 - rare.
Note:
  • sé - vernacular;
  • sé̤ṳ - literary.
  • Min Nan
  • Note:
    • Xiamen, Quanzhou, Zhangzhou, Taiwan, Singapore, Penang:
      • sì - vernacular;
      • sù/sìr - literary.
    • Jinjiang, Philippines:
      • sì - vernacular and literary.
  • (Teochew)
  • Wu

  • Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (16)
    Final () (15)
    Tone (調) Departing (H)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /siɪH/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /siH/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /sjɪH/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /siH/
    Li
    Rong
    /siH/
    Wang
    Li
    /siH/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /siH/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ sijH ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*s.li[j]-s/
    English four

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 12022
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    1
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*hljids/

    Definitions[edit]

    1. four
    2. (music) la (musical note)
    3. (printing) English; The size of type between 小四 (little 4) and 小三 (little 3), standardized as 14 point.

    Compounds[edit]

    Descendants[edit]

    Sino-Xenic ():
    • Japanese:  () (shi)
    • Korean: (, sa)
    • Vietnamese: tứ ()

    Others:

    See also[edit]

    Chinese numbers
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 102 103 104 108 1012
    Normal
    (小寫小写)
    亿 (Taiwan)
    萬億万亿 (Mainland China)
    Financial
    (大寫大写)
    Playing cards in Chinese · 撲克牌扑克牌 (pūkèpái) (layout · text)
    40 Asso di picche.jpg 41 Due di picche.jpg 42 Tre di picche.jpg 43 Quattro di picche.jpg 44 Cinque di picche.jpg 45 Sei di picche.jpg 46 Sette di picche.jpg
    A
    47 Otto di picche.jpg 48 Nove di picche.jpg 49 Dieci di picche.jpg 50 J di picche.jpg 51 Q di picche.jpg 52 K di picche.jpg Jolly Nero.jpg
    J Q K 小王 (black), 大王 (red)

    Japanese[edit]

    Japanese cardinal numbers
     <  3 4 5  > 
        Cardinal :

    Kanji[edit]

    (grade 1 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    Readings[edit]

    Compounds[edit]

    Derived terms[edit]

    Etymology 1[edit]

    /yo2/ *[jə] > /yo/ [jo].

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana , rōmaji yo)

    1. four

    Etymology 2[edit]

    Native (yo, four) + n, influenced by analogy by the final sound in Chinese (san, three).

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana よん, rōmaji yon)

    1. four

    Etymology 3[edit]

    Sino-Japanese reading.

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana , rōmaji shi)

    1. four
    2. fourth

    References[edit]


    Korean[edit]

    Hanja[edit]

    (sa)

    1. four

    Compounds[edit]


    Mulam[edit]

    Numeral[edit]

    (ti5)

    1. four

    Vietnamese[edit]

    Han character[edit]

    (tứ, tớ, )

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.