西

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西 U+897F, 西
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-897F

[U+897E]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+8980]

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
西-order.gif

Han character[edit]

西 (radical 146, +0, 6 strokes, cangjie input 一金田 (MCW), four-corner 10600, composition𠁤)

Derived characters[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 1128, character 10
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 34763
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1595, character 19
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 4, page 2805, character 2
  • Unihan data for U+897F

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.
西
alternative forms

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character 西
Shang Western Zhou Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
西-oracle.svg 西-bronze.svg 西-seal.svg 西-bigseal.svg

Pictogram (象形) – a bag or basket, borrowed for phonetic value. Compare (OC *toːŋ, “bundle > east”). Traditionally explained as a pictogram of a bird settling into its nest, which by analogy with the setting of the sun means “west”. This etymology has been disputed (Sears), but Sagart (2004) stands by it.

Etymology[edit]

The word is traditionally reconstructed to have a /*s/-initial in Old Chinese, e.g. /*sɯːl/ in Zhengzhang (2003). However, recent scholarship has suggested that the Old Chinese initial should instead be reconstructed as /*s-nˤ/, one of the reasons being 西 appears to be the phonetic in (nǎi), the archaic graphic variant of (OC *nɯːʔ). The new reconstruction, /*s-nˤər/ in Baxter and Sagart (2014), also accounts for how 西 can be the phonetic in (shěn, “to smile”). For more information, see Sagart (2004), Baxter and Sagart (2014) and Nohara (2018).

In light of the new construction with the initial consonant cluster /*s-nˤ/, the possibilities of the etymology of 西, aside from being cognate with (, “to roost; to rest”) (B-S OC /*s-nˤər/), include:

  • Related to Tibetan ནེར་བ (ner ba, to sink; to fall gradually) (Unger, 1990).
  • Related to Chepang नेलःसा (nelʔ‑, to go down; to sink), which may be the same etymon as the Written Tibetan word above (Schuessler, 2007).
  • Related to the root (, “to stop”) (OC /*nˤərʔ/ for intransitive form, /*nˤərʔ-s/ for transitive form in Baxter and Sagart (2014)).
  • An Austroasiatic nominal n-infix derivative from the root "go down", as in Old Mon cnis (ghat) < Old Mon cis (to go down) , with Proto-Austroasiatic *tsn- > Proto-Sinitic *sn-. Therefore, this etymon literally means "the place where one goes down to > Mon "ghat" > OC "nest, west". The base form is (OC *ʔsliːls) via Austroasiatic (Schuessler, 2007).

Pronunciation[edit]


Note:
  • sai - vernacular;
  • se - literary;
  • si - vernacular (limited, e.g. 西瓜).
Note:
  • sai - literary;
  • si1 - vernacular (for 西瓜).
  • Wu
  • Xiang

    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location 西
    Mandarin Beijing /ɕi⁵⁵/
    Harbin /ɕi⁴⁴/
    Tianjin /ɕi²¹/
    Jinan /ɕi²¹³/
    Qingdao /si²¹³/
    Zhengzhou /si²⁴/
    Xi'an /ɕi²¹/
    Xining /ɕji⁴⁴/
    Yinchuan /ɕi⁴⁴/
    Lanzhou /ɕi³¹/
    Ürümqi /ɕi⁴⁴/
    Wuhan /ɕi⁵⁵/
    Chengdu /ɕi⁵⁵/
    Guiyang /ɕi⁵⁵/
    Kunming /ɕi⁴⁴/
    Nanjing /si³¹/
    Hefei /sz̩²¹/
    Jin Taiyuan /ɕi¹¹/
    Pingyao /ɕi¹³/
    /sei¹³/ ~瓜
    Hohhot /ɕi³¹/
    Wu Shanghai /ɕi⁵³/
    Suzhou /si⁵⁵/
    Hangzhou /ɕi³³/
    Wenzhou /sei³³/
    Hui Shexian /si³¹/
    Tunxi /se¹¹/
    Xiang Changsha /si³³/
    Xiangtan /si³³/
    Gan Nanchang /ɕi⁴²/
    Hakka Meixian /si⁴⁴/
    Taoyuan /si²⁴/
    Cantonese Guangzhou /sɐi⁵³/
    Nanning /ɬɐi⁵⁵/
    Hong Kong /sɐi⁵⁵/
    Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /se⁵⁵/
    /sai⁵⁵/ 東~
    /si⁵⁵/ ~瓜
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /sɛ⁴⁴/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /sai⁵⁴/
    /si⁵⁴/
    Shantou (Min Nan) /si³³/
    /sai³³/
    Haikou (Min Nan) /si²³/
    /tai²³/

    Rime
    Character 西
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (16)
    Final () (39)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () IV
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /sei/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /sei/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /sɛi/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /sɛj/
    Li
    Rong
    /sei/
    Wang
    Li
    /siei/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /siei/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character 西 西
    Reading # 1/2 2/2
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ sej › ‹ sej ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*s-nˁər/ /*s-nˁər/
    English west west

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character 西
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 13236
    Phonetic
    component
    西
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    1
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    西
    Old
    Chinese
    /*sɯːl/

    Definitions[edit]

    西

    1. west; western
    2. (~村) Xi (a village in Dongsong, Luoning, Luoyang, Henan, China)

    Coordinate terms[edit]

    • (compass points)
    西北 東北
    西 Compass rose simple plain.svg
    西南 東南


    Compounds[edit]

    Descendants[edit]

    Sino-Xenic (西):
    • Japanese: 西(さい) (sai); 西(せい) (sei)
    • Korean: (西, seo)
    • Vietnamese: tây (西)

    Others:


    Japanese[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    西

    (grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    1. west
    2. Europe, European
    3. kanji used to transliterate foreign languages
    4. Short for 西班牙 (Supein): Spain, Spanish
    5. autumn

    Readings[edit]

    Compounds[edit]

    Etymology 1[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    西
    にし
    Grade: 2
    kun’yomi

    From adnominal 往にし (inishi, leaving, passing), as the direction of sunset. (Can this(+) etymology be sourced?)

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    西(にし) (nishi

    1. west (one of the four cardinal directions)
      Antonym: (higashi)
    2. the West
    3. wind blowing from the west
      Antonym: (higashi)
    4. (theater) in kabukii:
      1. the left side of the stage in the Edo-style
      2. the right side of the stage in Kyoto and Osaka styles
    5. (sumo) lower-ranked wrestlers listed on the left side of a banzuke
      Antonym: (higashi)
    6. a capitalist state (originally western Europe, as opposed to Eastern Bloc countries)
      Synonym: 西側 (nishigawa)
      Antonym: (higashi)
    Coordinate terms[edit]
    • (compass points)
    西北(せいほく) (seihoku)/北西(ほくせい) (hokusei) (きた) (kita) 東北(とうほく) (tōhoku)/北東(ほくとう) (hokutō)
    西(にし) (nishi) Compass rose simple plain.svg (ひがし) (higashi)
    西南(せいなん) (seinan)/南西(なんせい) (nansei) (みなみ) (minami) 東南(とうなん) (tōnan)/南東(なんとう) (nantō)


    Derived terms[edit]
    Idioms[edit]
    Proverbs[edit]

    Proper noun[edit]

    西(にし) (Nishi

    1. (Buddhism) Synonym of 西方浄土 (Saihō Jōdo): the western paradise of Amitabha Buddha
    2. (Buddhism) Short for 西本願寺 (Nishi Hongan-ji): a Buddhist temple in Kyoto
      Synonym: お西 (o-Nishi)
    3. (historical) a red-light district in Edo-period Shinjuku (as it was located west of Edo Castle)
    4. a place name, especially the name of various wards in major cities throughout Japan
    5. a surname

    Etymology 2[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    西
    しゃー
    Grade: 2
    Irregular

    Possibly a corruption of Mandarin 西 (, west).

    Noun[edit]

    西(シャー) (shā

    1. (mahjong) west wind (mahjong tile)
      Hypernym: 風牌 (kazehai, fanpai)
    2. (mahjong)} a (yaku, winning hand) with a triplet or quad of west wind tiles; depending on wind round and player's seat wind, it is worth either 1 or 2 (han, doubles)
      Hypernym: 役牌 (yakuhai, yaku-pai)
    See also[edit]

    References[edit]

    1. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
    2. ^ 1974, 新明解国語辞典 (Shin Meikai Kokugo Jiten), Second Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō

    Korean[edit]

    Hanja[edit]

    西 (eumhun 서녘 (seonyeok seo))

    1. west; western
    2. westward
    3. permeate; seep; saturate

    Okinawan[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    西

    (grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    Readings[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    西 (hiragana いり, romaji iri)

    1. the West

    Compounds[edit]

    • 西風 (いりかじ, irikazi, west wind)

    Vietnamese[edit]

    Han character[edit]

    西: Hán Nôm readings: tây

    1. west
    2. West (the Western world)
    • Sơn Tây 山西
    • Tây Sơn 西山
    • Sài Gòn 西貢
    • phía tây : 費西

    References[edit]

    • Thiều Chửu : Hán Việt Tự Điển Hà Nội 1942
    • Trần Văn Chánh: Từ Điển Hán Việt NXB Trẻ, Ho Chi Minh Ville, 1999
    • Vũ Văn Kính: Đại Tự Điển Chữ Nôm, NXB Văn Nghệ, Ho Chi Minh Ville, 1999