西

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西 U+897F, 西
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-897F

[U+897E]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+8980]

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
西-order.gif

Han character[edit]

西 (radical 146, 西+0, 6 strokes, cangjie input 一金田 (MCW), four-corner 10600, composition𠁤)

Usage notes[edit]

西 is the 146th radical of the Chinese dictionary. In its few compounds it most often appears at the top in the form 覀 as in . It is important to distinguish it from and .

Derived characters[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 1128, character 10
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 34763
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1595, character 19
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 4, page 2805, character 2
  • Unihan data for U+897F

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.
西
variant forms

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character 西
Shang Western Zhou Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
西-oracle.svg 西-bronze.svg 西-seal.svg 西-bigseal.svg
Characters in the same phonetic series (西) (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*sɯːl, *sɯːl
*sraːls, *sɯːlʔ
西 *sɯːl
*sɯːl
*sɯːl
*sɯːl, *sɯːls
*sʰɯːns
*hjɯnʔ

Pictogram (象形) – a bag or basket, borrowed for phonetic value. Compare (OC *toːŋ, “bundle > east”). Traditionally explained as a pictogram of a bird settling into its nest, which by analogy with the setting of the sun means “west”. This etymology has been disputed (Sears), but Sagart (2004) stands by it.

Pronunciation[edit]


Note:
  • sai - vernacular;
  • se - literary;
  • si - vernacular (limited, e.g. 西瓜).
Note:
  • sai - literary;
  • si1 - vernacular (for 西瓜).
  • Wu

    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location 西
    Mandarin Beijing /ɕi⁵⁵/
    Harbin /ɕi⁴⁴/
    Tianjin /ɕi²¹/
    Jinan /ɕi²¹³/
    Qingdao /si²¹³/
    Zhengzhou /si²⁴/
    Xi'an /ɕi²¹/
    Xining /ɕji⁴⁴/
    Yinchuan /ɕi⁴⁴/
    Lanzhou /ɕi³¹/
    Ürümqi /ɕi⁴⁴/
    Wuhan /ɕi⁵⁵/
    Chengdu /ɕi⁵⁵/
    Guiyang /ɕi⁵⁵/
    Kunming /ɕi⁴⁴/
    Nanjing /si³¹/
    Hefei /sz̩²¹/
    Jin Taiyuan /ɕi¹¹/
    Pingyao /ɕi¹³/
    /sei¹³/ ~瓜
    Hohhot /ɕi³¹/
    Wu Shanghai /ɕi⁵³/
    Suzhou /si⁵⁵/
    Hangzhou /ɕi³³/
    Wenzhou /sei³³/
    Hui Shexian /si³¹/
    Tunxi /se¹¹/
    Xiang Changsha /si³³/
    Xiangtan /si³³/
    Gan Nanchang /ɕi⁴²/
    Hakka Meixian /si⁴⁴/
    Taoyuan /si²⁴/
    Cantonese Guangzhou /sɐi⁵³/
    Nanning /ɬɐi⁵⁵/
    Hong Kong /sɐi⁵⁵/
    Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /se⁵⁵/
    /sai⁵⁵/ 東~
    /si⁵⁵/ ~瓜
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /sɛ⁴⁴/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /sai⁵⁴/
    /si⁵⁴/
    Shantou (Min Nan) /si³³/
    /sai³³/
    Haikou (Min Nan) /si²³/
    /tai²³/

    Rime
    Character 西
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (16)
    Final () (39)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () IV
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /sei/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /sei/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /sɛi/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /sɛj/
    Li
    Rong
    /sei/
    Wang
    Li
    /siei/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /siei/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character 西 西
    Reading # 1/2 2/2
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ sej › ‹ sej ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*s-nˤər/ /*s-nˤər/
    English west west

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character 西
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 13236
    Phonetic
    component
    西
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    1
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    西
    Old
    Chinese
    /*sɯːl/

    Definitions[edit]

    西

    1. west; western

    Coordinate terms[edit]

    Compounds[edit]


    Japanese[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    西

    (grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    1. west
    2. Europe, European
    3. kanji used to transliterate foreign languages
    4. Short for 西班牙 (Supein): Spain, Spanish
    5. autumn

    Readings[edit]

    Compounds[edit]

    Etymology 1[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    西
    にし
    Grade: 2
    kun’yomi

    From adnominal 往にし (inishi, leaving, passing), as the direction of sunset. (Can this(+) etymology be sourced?)

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    西 (hiragana にし, rōmaji nishi)

    1. west (one of the four cardinal directions)
      Antonym: (higashi)
    2. the West
    3. wind blowing from the west
      Antonym: (higashi)
    4. (theater) in kabukii:
      1. the left side of the stage in the Edo-style
      2. the right side of the stage in Kyoto and Osaka styles
    5. (sumo) lower-ranked wrestlers listed on the left side of a banzuke
      Antonym: (higashi)
    6. a capitalist state (originally western Europe, as opposed to Eastern Bloc countries)
      Synonym: 西側 (nishigawa)
      Antonym: (higashi)
    Derived terms[edit]
    Idioms[edit]
    Proverbs[edit]

    Proper noun[edit]

    西 (hiragana にし, rōmaji Nishi)

    1. (Buddhism) Synonym of 西方浄土 (Saihō Jōdo): the western paradise of Amitabha Buddha
    2. (Buddhism) Short for 西本願寺 (Nishi Hongan-ji): a Buddhist temple in Kyoto
      Synonym: お西 (o-Nishi)
    3. (historical) a red-light district in Edo-period Shinjuku (as it was located west of Edo Castle)
    4. a place name, especially the name of various wards in major cities throughout Japan
    5. a surname

    Etymology 2[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    西
    しゃー
    Grade: 2
    Irregular

    Possibly a corruption of Mandarin 西 (, west).

    Noun[edit]

    西 (katakana シャー, rōmaji shā)

    1. (mahjong) west wind (mahjong tile)
      Hypernym: 風牌 (kazehai, fanpai)
    2. (mahjong) a (yaku, winning hand) with a triplet or quad of west wind tiles; depending on wind round and player's seat wind, it is worth either 1 or 2 (han, doubles)
      Hypernym: 役牌 (yakuhai, yaku-pai)
    See also[edit]

    References[edit]

    1. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
    2. ^ 1974, 新明解国語辞典 (Shin Meikai Kokugo Jiten), Second Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō

    Korean[edit]

    Hanja[edit]

    西 (seo)

    1. west; western

    Okinawan[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    西 (hiragana いり, romaji iri)

    Noun[edit]

    西 (hiragana いり, romaji iri)

    1. the West

    Compounds[edit]


    Vietnamese[edit]

    Han character[edit]

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.
    • Sơn Tây 山西
    • Tây Sơn 西山
    • Sài Gòn 西貢
    • phía tây : 費西

    References[edit]

    • Thiều Chửu : Hán Việt Tự Điển Hà Nội 1942
    • Trần Văn Chánh: Từ Điển Hán Việt NXB Trẻ, Ho Chi Minh Ville, 1999
    • Vũ Văn Kính: Đại Tự Điển Chữ Nôm, NXB Văn Nghệ, Ho Chi Minh Ville, 1999