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See also: , , , , , and
U+4E8E, 于
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-4E8E

[U+4E8D]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+4E8F]

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
于-order.gif

Han character[edit]

(radical 7, +1, 3 strokes, cangjie input 一木 (MD), four-corner 10400, composition)

Derived characters[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 86, character 6
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 252
  • Dae Jaweon: page 177, character 4
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 1, page 4, character 5
  • Unihan data for U+4E8E

Chinese[edit]

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Chu Slip and silk script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
于-oracle.svg 于-bronze.svg 于-silk.svg 于-seal.svg 于-bigseal.svg





References:

Mostly from Richard Sears' Chinese Etymology site (authorisation),
which in turn draws data from various collections of ancient forms of Chinese characters, including:

  • Shuowen Jiezi (small seal),
  • Jinwen Bian (bronze inscriptions),
  • Liushutong (Liushutong characters) and
  • Yinxu Jiaguwen Bian (oracle bone script).
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*qaːls
*kʰʷraː
*kʰʷraː
*kʰʷraː, *kʰʷraːs, *kʰʷaːs
*kʰʷraː, *kʰʷraːʔ, *kʰʷraːs, *kʰʷaːs
*kʰʷraː
*kʰʷraːʔ
*kʰʷraːʔ
*kʰʷraːʔ
*kʰʷraːʔ
*ɢʷraː, *qʷaː
*ɡʷraːs
*pɢʷaː, *kʰʷaː
*qʰʷl'aː
*kʰʷaː, *qʷaː
*kʰʷaː
*kʰʷaː
*kʰʷaː
*kʰʷaːs
*kʰʷaːs
*kʰʷaːs
*qʰaː
洿 *ɡʷaːʔ, *qʷaː
*ɡʷlaː, *ɡʷlaːs
*ɢʷlaːʔ
*qʷaː, *qʷaːs
*qʷaː
*qʷaː
*qʷaː
*qʷaː
*qʷaːs, *ɢʷa
*qʰʷl'a
*qʰʷl'a
*pqʰʷa, *qʰʷa
*qʰʷla, *ɢʷla
*qʰʷa, *ɢʷas
*qʰʷa
*qʰʷa
*qʰʷa, *qʷa
*qʰʷa
*qʰʷaʔ
*qʷa
*qʷa
*qʷa, *qʷaʔ, *ɢʷa
*qʷa
*ɢʷa
*ɢʷa
*ɢʷa
*ɢʷa
*ɢʷa
*ɢʷa, *ɢʷas
*ɢʷa
*ɢʷa
*ɢʷa
*ɢʷla
*ɢʷaʔ

Pictogram (象形). Two possibilities for the object of representation are:

  • An ancient wind instrument; early form of (OC *ɢʷa). This view is supported by mainstream palaeography.
  • Exhaled air; early form of (OC *qʰʷa, *ɢʷas, “to sigh”). Shuowen considers it to be an ideogrammic compound (會意):  (flat stream of air) +  (to exhale). Compare , , .

Etymology 1[edit]

For pronunciation and definitions of – see (“in; at; on; with; on; etc.”).
(This character, , is the simplified and variant traditional form of .)
Notes:

Etymology 2[edit]

simp. and trad.
alt. forms

Pronunciation[edit]



Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (35)
Final () (24)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Closed
Division () III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ɦɨo/
Pan
Wuyun
/ɦio/
Shao
Rongfen
/ɣio/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ɦuə̆/
Li
Rong
/ɣio/
Wang
Li
/ɣĭu/
Bernard
Karlgren
/i̯u/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/2 2/2
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle
Chinese
‹ hju › ‹ hju ›
Old
Chinese
/*ɢʷ(r)a/ /*ɦʷa/ (< *ɢʷ(r)a)
English go; at 單于 chányú: Xiōngnú ruler (W. Hàn)

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 15706
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*ɢʷa/
Notes

Definitions[edit]

  1. A surname​.
  2. Used in several names and proper nouns.
    • /   ―  chán  ―  chief of the Xiongnu; a Chinese surname
    •   ―  Chún  ―  a Chinese surname

Compounds[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(uncommon “Hyōgai” kanji)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

Readings[edit]


Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

(u) (hangeul , revised u, McCune–Reischauer u)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(vu, vo, )

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

References[edit]