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See also:
U+88B4, 袴
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-88B4

[U+88B3]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+88B5]

Translingual[edit]

Traditional
Shinjitai
(extended)
Simplified

Han character[edit]

(radical 145, +6, 11 strokes, cangjie input 中大一尸 (LKMS), composition)

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 1115, character 26
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 34236
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1581, character 5
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 5, page 3088, character 7
  • Unihan data for U+88B4

Chinese[edit]

Glyph origin[edit]

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *kʰʷaːs): semantic  (cloth) + phonetic  (OC *kʰʷraː) – a type of clothing.

Etymology 1[edit]

For pronunciation and definitions of – see (“pants; trousers”).
(This character, , is a variant form of .)

Etymology 2[edit]

For pronunciation and definitions of – see (“hip; groin”).
(This character, , is an ancient variant form of .)

Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(“Jinmeiyō” kanji used for namesshinjitai kanji, kyūjitai form )

  1. traditional Japanese loose trousers

Readings[edit]

  • Go-on: (ku)
  • Kan-on: (ko)
  • Kun: はかま (hakama, ); ずぼん (zubon, )

Compounds[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Japanese Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia ja
English Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia
(hakama, traditional Japanese trousers)
Kanji in this term
はかま
Jinmeiyō
kun’yomi

From Old Japanese. Attested in the Man'yōshū, completed some time after 759 CE.

Appears to be a compound deriving ultimately from 穿か (haka, the 未然形 (mizenkei, incomplete form) or a sound shift from some other conjugation of verb 穿く (haku, to pull onto the lower body (such as trousers))) +‎ (ma, robes, sound shift from expected reading mo).[1]

The loincloth sense is attested earlier in the Nihon Shoki, finished in 720 CE.[2] Other sources[1] also cite the Nihon Shoki for the trousers sense, possibly suggesting confusion regarding the meaning of the term as used in that text.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

(はかま) (hakama

  1. hakama: a type of traditional Japanese trousers
    • 720, Nihon Shoki (poem 74)
      飫瀰能古簸(おみのこは)多倍能(たへの)波伽摩(はかま)()那那陛鳴絁(ななへをし)爾播爾陀陀始諦(にはにたたして)阿遥比那陀須暮(あよひなだすも) [Man'yōgana]
      (おみ)()(たへ)(はかま)(なな)()をし(には)()たして足結(あよひ)(なだ) [Modern spelling]
      omi no ko wa tae no hakama o nanae oshi niwa ni tatashite ayoi nadasu mo
      (please add an English translation of this example)
  2. (botany) a leaf sheath
  3. a holder for a heated bottle of saké
  4. (rare, possibly obsolete) a kind of traditional Japanese loincloth
    • 720, Nihon Shoki (page 562)
      逼而脱(***)() [...] [Man'yōgana]
      ()めて(はかま)()かしめて [...] [Modern spelling]
      semete hakama o nikashimete...
      (please add an English translation of this example)
    Synonym: (fundoshi)
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Kanji in this term

Jinmeiyō
on’yomi

From Middle Chinese (MC kʰuoH).

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

() (ko

  1. (rare) hakama: a type of traditional Japanese trousers
  2. (rare) momohiki: traditional Japanese closefitting workman's trousers
    Synonym: 股引き (momohiki)
  3. (historical, military): prior to World War II, the general term for trousers in the Imperial Japanese Army
    Synonym: ズボン (zubon)

Derived terms[edit]

References[edit]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
  2. 2.0 2.1 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN

Korean[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Hanja[edit]

(eumhun 바지 (baji go))

  1. trousers, pants (US)
  2. crotch, groin

Etymology 2[edit]

Hanja[edit]

(eumhun 사타구니 (sataguni gwa))

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.