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See also:
U+88B4, 袴
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-88B4

[U+88B3]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+88B5]

Translingual[edit]

Shinjitai
Simplified
Traditional

Han character[edit]

(radical 145 +6, 12 strokes, cangjie input 中大一尸 (LKMS), composition)

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 1115, character 26
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 34236
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1581, character 5
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 5, page 3088, character 7
  • Unihan data for U+88B4

Chinese[edit]

Glyph origin[edit]

Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*qaːls
*kʰʷraː
*kʰʷraː
*kʰʷraː, *kʰʷraːs, *kʰʷaːs
*kʰʷraː, *kʰʷraːʔ, *kʰʷraːs, *kʰʷaːs
*kʰʷraː
*kʰʷraːʔ
*kʰʷraːʔ
*kʰʷraːʔ
*kʰʷraːʔ
*ɢʷraː, *qʷaː
*ɡʷraːs
*pɢʷaː, *kʰʷaː
*qʰʷl'aː
*kʰʷaː, *qʷaː
*kʰʷaː
*kʰʷaː
*kʰʷaː
*kʰʷaːs
*kʰʷaːs
*kʰʷaːs
*qʰaː
洿 *ɡʷaːʔ, *qʷaː
*ɡʷlaː, *ɡʷlaːs
*ɢʷlaːʔ
*qʷaː, *qʷaːs
*qʷaː
*qʷaː
*qʷaː
*qʷaː
*qʷaːs, *ɢʷa
*qʰʷl'a
*qʰʷl'a
*pqʰʷa, *qʰʷa
*qʰʷla, *ɢʷla
*qʰʷa, *ɢʷas
*qʰʷa
*qʰʷa
*qʰʷa, *qʷa
*qʰʷa
*qʰʷaʔ
*qʷa
*qʷa
*qʷa, *qʷaʔ, *ɢʷa
*qʷa
*ɢʷa
*ɢʷa
*ɢʷa
*ɢʷa
*ɢʷa
*ɢʷa, *ɢʷas
*ɢʷa
*ɢʷa
*ɢʷa
*ɢʷla
*ɢʷaʔ

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *kʰʷaːs): semantic  (cloth) + phonetic  (OC *kʰʷraː) – a type of clothing.

Etymology 1[edit]

For pronunciation and definitions of – see (“pants; trousers”).
(This character, , is a variant form of .)

Etymology 2[edit]

For pronunciation and definitions of – see (“hip; groin”).
(This character, , is an ancient variant form of .)

Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(“Jinmeiyō” kanji used for namesshinjitai kanji, kyūjitai form )

  1. traditional Japanese loose trousers

Readings[edit]

Compounds[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia
Japanese Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia ja
(hakama, traditional Japanese trousers)
Kanji in this term
はかま
Jinmeiyō
kun’yomi

From Old Japanese. Attested in the Man'yōshū, completed some time after 759 CE.

Appears to be a compound deriving ultimately from 穿か (haka, the 未然形 (mizenkei, incomplete form) or a sound shift from some other conjugation of verb 穿く (haku, to pull onto the lower body (such as trousers))) +‎ (ma, robes, sound shift from expected reading mo).[1]

The loincloth sense is attested earlier in the Nihon Shoki, finished in 720 CE.[2] Other sources[1] also cite the Nihon Shoki for the trousers sense, possibly suggesting confusion regarding the meaning of the term as used in that text.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

(hiragana はかま, rōmaji hakama)

  1. a type of traditional Japanese trousers
  2. (botany) a leaf sheath
  3. a holder for a heated bottle of saké
  4. (rare, possibly obsolete) a kind of traditional Japanese loincloth
Synonyms[edit]
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Kanji in this term

Jinmeiyō
on’yomi

From Middle Chinese (MC kʰuoH).

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

(hiragana , rōmaji ko)

  1. (rare) hakama: a type of traditional Japanese trousers
  2. (rare) momohiki: traditional Japanese closefitting workman's trousers
  3. (historical, military): prior to World War Two, the general term for trousers in the Japanese army
Synonyms[edit]

References[edit]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
  2. 2.0 2.1 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, ISBN 4-385-13905-9

Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

(go, gwa)

  • Eumhun:
    • Sound (hangeul): , (revised: go, gwa, McCune-Reischauer: ko, kwa, Yale: ko, kwa)
    • Name (hangeul): 바지, 사타구니 (revised: baji, sataguni, McCune-Reischauer: paji, sat'aguni, Yale: paci, sathakwuni)
  1. trousers, pants (US)
  2. crotch, groin