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U+5728, 在
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-5728

[U+5727]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+5729]

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
6 strokes
Stroke order
在-order.gif

Han character[edit]

(radical 32, +3, 6 strokes, cangjie input 大中土 (KLG), four-corner 40214, composition𠂇)

Derived characters[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: not present, would follow page 224, character 18
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 4881
  • Dae Jaweon: page 455, character 14
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 1, page 418, character 7
  • Unihan data for U+5728

Chinese[edit]

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Spring and Autumn Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming) Libian (compiled in Qing)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Bronze inscriptions Qin slip script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts Clerical script
在-oracle.svg 在-bronze.svg 在-bronze-spring.svg 在-slip.svg 在-seal.svg 在-bigseal.svg 在-clerical.svg

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *zlɯːʔ, *zlɯːs): phonetic  (OC *zlɯː, *zlɯːs) + semantic  (earth).

was visually identical with (OC *zlɯː, *zlɯːs, “sprout”) in the oracle bone script and some of the bronze inscriptions. It may be either a phonetic loan or a figurative derivative.

Etymology 1[edit]

simp. and trad.
alternative forms

Probably related to (OC *ʔslɯː, “to plant”) (Schuessler, 2007).

This etymology is incomplete. You can help Wiktionary by elaborating on the origins of this term.

Pronunciation[edit]


Note: de4 - modal particle.
Note:
  • Sixian:
    • chhai - literary;
    • chhôi - colloquial;
    • ti/tu/tui/to/chhi/thê/thî/tî/chhî/chhô/chhok - colloquial (probably substitute).
  • Meixian:
    • cai4 - literary;
    • coi1 - colloquial;
    • hoi1/hoi4 - colloquial (preposition, also written as or ).
  • Jin
  • Min Bei
  • Min Dong
  • Min Nan
  • Note:
    • do6 - colloquial;
    • zai6 - literary.
  • Wu
  • Xiang
  • Note:
    • dou5 - colloquial (preposition);
    • zai5 - colloquial;
    • zai4 - literary.

    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location
    Mandarin Beijing /t͡sai⁵¹/
    Harbin /t͡sai⁵³/ ~早
    /t͡sai²¹³/ ~家
    Tianjin /tai⁵³/
    /t͡sai⁵³/
    Jinan /t͡sɛ²¹/
    Qingdao /t͡sɛ⁴²/
    Zhengzhou /t͡sai³¹²/
    Xi'an /t͡sai⁴⁴/
    Xining /t͡sɛ²¹³/
    Yinchuan /t͡sɛ¹³/
    Lanzhou /t͡sɛ¹³/
    Ürümqi /t͡sai²¹³/
    Wuhan /t͡sai³⁵/
    Chengdu /t͡sai¹³/
    Guiyang /t͡sai²¹³/ 現~
    /tai²¹³/ ~家
    Kunming /t͡sæ²¹²/
    Nanjing /t͡sae⁴⁴/
    Hefei /t͡se̞⁵³/
    Jin Taiyuan /t͡sai⁴⁵/
    Pingyao /t͡sæ³⁵/
    Hohhot /t͡sɛ⁵⁵/
    Wu Shanghai /ze²³/
    Suzhou /ze̞³¹/
    Hangzhou /d͡ze̞¹³/
    Wenzhou /ze³⁵/
    Hui Shexian /t͡sʰɛ³⁵/
    /t͡sʰɛ²²/
    Tunxi /t͡sʰə²⁴/
    Xiang Changsha /t͡sai⁵⁵/
    /t͡sai¹¹/
    /təu¹¹/ ~屋裡
    Xiangtan /d͡zai²¹/
    Gan Nanchang /t͡sʰai²¹/
    Hakka Meixian /t͡sʰoi⁴⁴/
    /hoi⁴⁴/
    /t͡sʰai⁵³/
    Taoyuan /t͡sʰɑi⁵⁵/
    Cantonese Guangzhou /t͡sɔi²²/
    Nanning /t͡sɔi²²/
    Hong Kong /t͡sɔi²²/
    Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /t͡sai²²/
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /t͡sɑi²⁴²/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /t͡sai⁴²/
    Shantou (Min Nan) /t͡sai³⁵/
    /to³⁵/
    Haikou (Min Nan) /t͡sai³³/
    /ʔdu³³/

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/2 2/2
    Initial () (15) (15)
    Final () (41) (41)
    Tone (調) Rising (X) Departing (H)
    Openness (開合) Open Open
    Division () I I
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /d͡zʌiX/ /d͡zʌiH/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /d͡zəiX/ /d͡zəiH/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /d͡zɒiX/ /d͡zɒiH/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /d͡zəjX/ /d͡zəjH/
    Li
    Rong
    /d͡zᴀiX/ /d͡zᴀiH/
    Wang
    Li
    /d͡zɒiX/ /d͡zɒiH/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /d͡zʱɑ̆iX/ /d͡zʱɑ̆iH/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    zài zài
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    zài
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ dzojX ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*[dz]ˁəʔ/
    English be at, be present

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2 2/2
    No. 1064 1065
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0 0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*zlɯːʔ/ /*zlɯːs/

    Definitions[edit]

    1. to exist; to be alive
    2. to be at; to be in; to be located
      哪裡 / 哪里  ―  zài nǎlǐ?  ―  Where is he?
      旅館購物中心附近 [MSC, trad.]
      旅馆购物中心附近 [MSC, simp.]
      Lǚguǎn zài xīn gòuwù zhōngxīn fùjìn. [Pinyin]
      The hotel is located near the new shopping center.
      只塊 / 只块 [Teochew]  ―  Ua2 do6 zi2 go3. [Peng'im]  ―  I am here.
    3. be ...-ing; in the middle of doing something (indicating an action in progress)
      電視 / 电视  ―  zài kàn diànshì.  ―  I'm watching TV.
      米飯 / 米饭  ―  zài chī mǐfàn.  ―  He's eating rice.
      食飯 / 食饭 [Teochew]  ―  Ua2 do6 ziah8 beng7. [Peng'im]  ―  I am eating.
    4. (located) in; at
      中國 / 中国  ―  Wǒ zhù zài Zhōngguó.  ―  I live in China.
      我們當地報紙廣告 [MSC, trad.]
      我们当地报纸广告 [MSC, simp.]
      Wǒmen zài dāngdì bàozhǐ shàng dēng le yī zé guǎnggào. [Pinyin]
      We put an ad in the local paper.
      每天下午家裡工作 [MSC, trad.]
      每天下午家里工作 [MSC, simp.]
      Měitiān xiàwǔ tā zài jiālǐ gōngzuò. [Pinyin]
      Every afternoons he works at home.
    5. during; in
      打算假期什麼 [MSC, trad.]
      打算假期什么 [MSC, simp.]
      Nǐ dǎsuàn zài jiàqī lǐ zuò shénme? [Pinyin]
      What do you plan to do during the holidays?
      日記生前未曾發表 [MSC, trad.]
      日记生前未曾发表 [MSC, simp.]
      Tā de rìjì zài tā shēngqián wèicéng fābiǎo guò. [Pinyin]
      His diary was not published during his lifetime.
    6. Misspelling of (zài).
    7. A surname​.
    Synonyms[edit]
    • (to exist):
    edit
    • (cún) (literary, or in compounds)
    • 存在 (cúnzài)
    • (in):
    • (during):
    Compounds[edit]

    Etymology 2[edit]

    simp. and trad.

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Definitions[edit]

    1. (Hokkien) Alternative form of (“at, in”).

    References[edit]


    Japanese[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    (grade 5 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    Readings[edit]

    Compounds[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (ざい) (zai

    1. Clipping of 在郷 (zaigō): countryside or outskirts

    Prefix[edit]

    (ざい) (zai-

    1. residing in

    Korean[edit]

    Hanja[edit]

    (jae) (hangeul )

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    Vietnamese[edit]

    Han character[edit]

    (tại)

    1. in

    Preposition[edit]

    1. in