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Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
在-bw.png
Stroke order
在-order.gif

Etymology[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Large seal script Small seal script
在-oracle.svg 在-bronze.svg 在-bigseal.svg 在-seal.svg

Phono-semantic compound (形聲): phonetic  + semantic  ‎(earth)

在 was visually identical with Old Chinese ‎(sprout) in the oracle bone script and some of the bronze Script. It may be either a phonetic loan or a figurative derivate.

Han character[edit]

(radical 32 +3, 6 strokes, cangjie input 大中土 (KLG), four-corner 40214, composition𠂇)

References[edit]

  • KangXi: not present, would follow page 224, character 18
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 4881
  • Dae Jaweon: page 455, character 14
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 1, page 418, character 7
  • Unihan data for U+5728

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.

Pronunciation[edit]


Dialectal pronunciations ()
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /t͡sai⁵¹/
Harbin /t͡sai⁵³/ ~早
/t͡sai²¹³/ ~家
Tianjin /tai⁵³/
/t͡sai⁵³/
Jinan /t͡sɛ²¹/
Qingdao /t͡sɛ⁴²/
Zhengzhou /t͡sai³¹²/
Xi'an /t͡sai⁴⁴/
Xining /t͡sɛ²¹³/
Yinchuan /t͡sɛ¹³/
Lanzhou /t͡sɛ¹³/
Ürümqi /t͡sai²¹³/
Wuhan /t͡sai³⁵/
Chengdu /t͡sai¹³/
Guiyang /t͡sai²¹³/ 現~
/tai²¹³/ ~家
Kunming /t͡sæ²¹²/
Nanjing /t͡sae⁴⁴/
Hefei /t͡se̞⁵³/
Jin Taiyuan /t͡sai⁴⁵/
Pingyao /t͡sæ³⁵/
Hohhot /t͡sɛ⁵⁵/
Wu Shanghai /ze¹³/
Suzhou /ze̞³¹/
Hangzhou /d͡ze̞¹³/
Wenzhou /ze³⁵/
Hui Shexian /t͡sʰɛ³⁵/
/t͡sʰɛ²²/
Tunxi /t͡sʰə²⁴/
Xiang Changsha /t͡sai⁵⁵/
/t͡sai¹¹/
/təu¹¹/ ~屋裡
Xiangtan /d͡zai²¹/
Gan Nanchang /t͡sʰai²¹/
Hakka Meixian /t͡sʰio⁴⁴/
/hio⁴⁴/
/t͡sʰai⁵³/
Taoyuan /t͡sʰɑi⁵⁵/
Cantonese Guangzhou /t͡sɔi²²/
Nanning /t͡sɔi²²/
Hong Kong /t͡sɔi²²/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /t͡sai²²/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /t͡sɑi²⁴²/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /t͡sai⁴²/
Shantou (Min Nan) /t͡sai³⁵/
/to³⁵/
Haikou (Min Nan) /t͡sai³³/
/ʔdu³³/
Middle Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Character (), Pronunciation 1/2

Initial: (15)
Final:
Division: I

Openness: Open
Tone: Rising (X)

Fanqie:
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Bernard
Karlgren
Li
Rong
Pan
Wuyun
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Wang
Li
Shao
Rongfen
/d͡zʌiX/ /d͡zʱɑ̆iX/ /d͡zᴀiX/ /d͡zəiX/ /d͡zəjX/ /d͡zɒiX/ /d͡zɒiX/
Character (), Pronunciation 2/2

Initial: (15)
Final:
Division: I

Openness: Open
Tone: Departing (H)

Fanqie:
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Bernard
Karlgren
Li
Rong
Pan
Wuyun
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Wang
Li
Shao
Rongfen
/d͡zʌiH/ /d͡zʱɑ̆iH/ /d͡zᴀiH/ /d͡zəiH/ /d͡zəjH/ /d͡zɒiH/ /d͡zɒiH/
Old Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character Modern Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle Chinese Old Chinese English
zài ‹ dzojX › /*[dz]ˤəʔ/ be at, be present

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

  • Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
  • Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
  • Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
  • Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;
  • Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character No. Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
Corresponding
MC rime
Old Chinese Notes
1064 0 /*zlɯːʔ/
1065 0 /*zlɯːs/

Definitions[edit]

  1. be ...-ing, in the middle of doing something (indicating an action in progress)
    電視 / 电视  ―  zài kàn diànshì.  ―  I'm watching TV.
    米飯 / 米饭  ―  zài chī mǐfàn.  ―  He's eating rice.
  2. (located) in, at
    中國 / 中国  ―  Wǒ zhù zài Zhōngguó.  ―  I live in China.
    我們當地報紙廣告 [MSC, trad.]
    我们当地报纸广告 [MSC, simp.]
    Wǒmen zài dāngdì bàozhǐ shàng dēng le yī zé guǎnggào. [Pinyin]
    We put an ad in the local paper.
    下午家裡工作 / 下午家里工作  ―  Měi tiān xiàwǔ tā zài jiālǐ gōngzuò.  ―  Every afternoons he works at home.
  3. during; in
    打算假期什麼 / 打算假期什么  ―  Nǐ dǎsuàn zài jiǎqī lǐ zuò shénme?  ―  What do you plan to do during the holidays?
    日記生前未曾發表 [MSC, trad.]
    日记生前未曾发表 [MSC, simp.]
    Tā de rìjì zài tā shēngqián wèicéng fābiǎo guò. [Pinyin]
    His diary was not published during his lifetime.
  4. to exist, to be (located)
    那里  ―  zài nàlǐ?  ―  Where is he?
    旅馆购物中心附近  ―  Lǚguǎn zài xīn gòuwùzhōngxīn fùjìn.  ―  The hotel is located near the new shopping center.

See also[edit]

Compounds[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(grade 5 “Kyōiku” kanji)

Readings[edit]

Compounds[edit]

Noun[edit]

‎(hiragana ざい, romaji zai)

  1. as an abbreviation of 在郷 (ざいごう, zaigō), countryside or outskirts

Prefix[edit]

‎(hiragana ざい, romaji zai-)

  1. residing in

Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

‎(jae) (hangeul , revised jae, McCune-Reischauer chae)

  1. This entry needs a definition. Please add one, then remove {{defn}}.

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(tại)

  1. This entry needs a definition. Please add one, then remove {{defn}}.

Preposition[edit]

  1. in