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Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
在-bw.png
Stroke order
在-order.gif

Han character[edit]

(radical 32 +3, 6 strokes, cangjie input 大中土 (KLG), four-corner 40214, composition𠂇)

References[edit]

  • KangXi: not present, would follow page 224, character 18
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 4881
  • Dae Jaweon: page 455, character 14
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 1, page 418, character 7
  • Unihan data for U+5728

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Large seal script Small seal script
在-oracle.svg 在-bronze.svg 在-bigseal.svg 在-seal.svg

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *zlɯːʔ, *zlɯːs): phonetic  ‎(OC *zlɯː) + semantic  ‎(earth)

was visually identical with (cái, “sprout”) in the oracle bone script and some of the bronze Script. It may be either a phonetic loan or a figurative derivate.

Pronunciation[edit]


Dialectal pronunciations ()
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /t͡sai⁵¹/
Harbin /t͡sai⁵³/ ~早
/t͡sai²¹³/ ~家
Tianjin /tai⁵³/
/t͡sai⁵³/
Jinan /t͡sɛ²¹/
Qingdao /t͡sɛ⁴²/
Zhengzhou /t͡sai³¹²/
Xi'an /t͡sai⁴⁴/
Xining /t͡sɛ²¹³/
Yinchuan /t͡sɛ¹³/
Lanzhou /t͡sɛ¹³/
Ürümqi /t͡sai²¹³/
Wuhan /t͡sai³⁵/
Chengdu /t͡sai¹³/
Guiyang /t͡sai²¹³/ 現~
/tai²¹³/ ~家
Kunming /t͡sæ²¹²/
Nanjing /t͡sae⁴⁴/
Hefei /t͡se̞⁵³/
Jin Taiyuan /t͡sai⁴⁵/
Pingyao /t͡sæ³⁵/
Hohhot /t͡sɛ⁵⁵/
Wu Shanghai /ze¹³/
Suzhou /ze̞³¹/
Hangzhou /d͡ze̞¹³/
Wenzhou /ze³⁵/
Hui Shexian /t͡sʰɛ³⁵/
/t͡sʰɛ²²/
Tunxi /t͡sʰə²⁴/
Xiang Changsha /t͡sai⁵⁵/
/t͡sai¹¹/
/təu¹¹/ ~屋裡
Xiangtan /d͡zai²¹/
Gan Nanchang /t͡sʰai²¹/
Hakka Meixian /t͡sʰio⁴⁴/
/hio⁴⁴/
/t͡sʰai⁵³/
Taoyuan /t͡sʰɑi⁵⁵/
Cantonese Guangzhou /t͡sɔi²²/
Nanning /t͡sɔi²²/
Hong Kong /t͡sɔi²²/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /t͡sai²²/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /t͡sɑi²⁴²/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /t͡sai⁴²/
Shantou (Min Nan) /t͡sai³⁵/
/to³⁵/
Haikou (Min Nan) /t͡sai³³/
/ʔdu³³/
Middle Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Character (), Pronunciation 1/2

Initial: (15)
Final: (41)
Tone: Rising (X)

Openness: Open
Division: I
Fanqie:

Expected Mandarin reflex: zài
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Pan
Wuyun
Shao
Rongfen
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Li
Rong
Wang
Li
Bernard
Karlgren
/d͡zʌiX/ /d͡zəiX/ /d͡zɒiX/ /d͡zəjX/ /d͡zᴀiX/ /d͡zɒiX/ /d͡zʱɑ̆iX/
Character (), Pronunciation 2/2

Initial: (15)
Final: (41)
Tone: Departing (H)

Openness: Open
Division: I
Fanqie:

Expected Mandarin reflex: zài
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Pan
Wuyun
Shao
Rongfen
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Li
Rong
Wang
Li
Bernard
Karlgren
/d͡zʌiH/ /d͡zəiH/ /d͡zɒiH/ /d͡zəjH/ /d͡zᴀiH/ /d͡zɒiH/ /d͡zʱɑ̆iH/
Old Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character Modern Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle Chinese Old Chinese English
zài ‹ dzojX › /*[dz]ˤəʔ/ be at, be present

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

  • Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
  • Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
  • Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
  • Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;
  • Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character No. Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
Corresponding
MC rime
Old Chinese Notes
1064 0 /*zlɯːʔ/
1065 0 /*zlɯːs/

Definitions[edit]

  1. (located) in, at
    中國 / 中国  ―  Wǒ zhù zài Zhōngguó.  ―  I live in China.
  2. to exist, to be (located)
    哪裡 / 哪里  ―  zài nǎlǐ?  ―  Where is he?
  3. be ...-ing, in the middle of doing something (indicating an action in progress)
    電視 / 电视  ―  zài kàn diànshì.  ―  I'm watching TV.
  4. during; in
    打算假期什麼 / 打算假期什么  ―  Nǐ dǎsuàn zài jiǎqī lǐ zuò shénme?  ―  What do you plan to do during the holidays?

Synonyms[edit]

Dialectal synonyms of ("at, in")
Variety Location Words
Classical Classical
Mandarin Beijing
Taiwan
Cantonese Guangzhou
Hong Kong
Taishan
Hakka Miaoli (N. Sixian)
Liudui (S. Sixian)
Hsinchu (Hailu)
Dongshi (Dabu)
Taiwanese Raoping
Yunlin (Zhao'an)
Min Nan Quanzhou
Xiamen
Zhangzhou
Taipei
Kaohsiung
Tainan
Taichung
Yilan
Lukang
Sanxia
Kinmen
Magong
Hsinchu
Malaysia
Wu Shanghai 辣海
Wenzhou

Compounds[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(grade 5 “Kyōiku” kanji)

Readings[edit]

Compounds[edit]

Noun[edit]

‎(hiragana ざい, romaji zai)

  1. as an abbreviation of 在郷 (ざいごう, zaigō), countryside or outskirts

Prefix[edit]

‎(hiragana ざい, romaji zai-)

  1. residing in

Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

‎(jae) (hangeul , revised jae, McCune-Reischauer chae)

  1. This entry needs a definition. Please add one, then remove {{defn}}.

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(tại)

  1. This entry needs a definition. Please add one, then remove {{defn}}.

Preposition[edit]

  1. in