中國

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Chinese[edit]

 
middle; center; within
middle; center; within; among; in; while (doing sth); during; China; Chinese; hit (the mark)
country; state; nation
trad. (中國)
simp. (中国)
anagram 國中国中
Literally: “middle country; central country”.

Pronunciation[edit]



Rime
Character
Reading # 1/2 1/1
Initial () (9) (28)
Final () (2) (132)
Tone (調) Level (Ø) Checked (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open Closed
Division () III I
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ʈɨuŋ/ /kwək̚/
Pan
Wuyun
/ʈiuŋ/ /kʷək̚/
Shao
Rongfen
/ȶiuŋ/ /kuək̚/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ʈuwŋ/ /kwək̚/
Li
Rong
/ȶiuŋ/ /kuək̚/
Wang
Li
/ȶĭuŋ/ /kuək̚/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ȶi̯uŋ/ /kwək̚/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
zhōng guo
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
zung1 gwak1
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/2 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
zhōng guó
Middle
Chinese
‹ trjuwng › ‹ kwok ›
Old
Chinese
/*truŋ/ /*[C.q]ʷˁək/
English center state (n.)

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/2 1/1
No. 17407 5547
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0 0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*tuŋ/ /*kʷɯːɡ/
Phonetik.svg This entry needs pronunciation information. If you are familiar with the IPA then please add some!
Particularly: “Gan”
Phonetik.svg This entry needs pronunciation information. If you are familiar with the IPA then please add some!
Particularly: “Jin”
Phonetik.svg This entry needs pronunciation information. If you are familiar with the IPA then please add some!
Particularly: “Xiang”
Phonetik.svg This entry needs pronunciation information. If you are familiar with the IPA then please add some!
Particularly: “Min Bei”

Etymology 1[edit]

Wikipedia has articles on:

Earliest attested on the Western Zhou bronze vessel He zun. See Names of China#Zhongguo.

大邑商𠟭𠀠𢆶𠁩或 [Pre-Classical Chinese, trad. and simp.]
From: He zun inscription, translated by Pankenier (2013)
Wéi Wǔwáng jì kè Dàyìshāng, cè tíng gào yú Tiān, yuē: yú qí zhái zī Zhōngguó, zì zhī yì mín. [Pinyin]
When King Wu conquered the great city Shang, he then made reverent declarations to Heaven, saying: "Let me dwell in this, the central region, and from here govern the people."

Proper noun[edit]

中國

  1. China (a country in Asia; capital: Beijing)
    中國首都北京 [MSC, trad.]
    中国首都北京 [MSC, simp.]
    Zhōngguó de shǒudū shì Běijīng. [Pinyin]
    The capital of China is Beijing.
    現在中國旅行 [MSC, trad.]
    现在中国旅行 [MSC, simp.]
    Tā xiànzài zài Zhōngguó lǚxíng. [Pinyin]
    He's travelling around China right now.
    喜歡中國文學 [Taiwanese Mandarin, trad.]
    喜欢中国文学 [Taiwanese Mandarin, simp.]
    Nǐ xǐhuān Zhōngguó wénxué ma? [Pinyin]
    Do you like Chinese literature?
    中國和平崛起 / 中国和平崛起  ―  Zhōngguó hépíng juéqǐ  ―  China's peaceful rise
    中國社會科學院 / 中国社会科学院  ―  Zhōngguó shèhuìkēxuéyuàn  ―  the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences
    中國典籍英譯 / 中国典籍英译  ―  Zhōngguó diǎnjí yīngyì  ―  English translations of Chinese classics
Usage notes[edit]

This word referred to various states and regions throughout history:

Synonyms[edit]
  • (China):
edit
Derived terms[edit]

Noun[edit]

中國

  1. (Classical Chinese) royal court; imperial court; imperial household; imperial government
  2. (Classical Chinese) central part of a country (historically, commonly known as the capital city or the main region, where an emperor or other ruler resides)
  3. (Classical Chinese) the Central Plain (area on the lower reaches of the Yellow River which formed the cradle of Chinese civilization)
  4. (Classical Chinese) people of the Central Plain
Synonyms[edit]
  • (royal court):
edit
  • (central part of a country): (archaic) 國中国中 (guózhōng)
  • (the Central Plain): 中土 (Zhōngtǔ), 中原 (Zhōngyuán), 中州 (Zhōngzhōu)

Descendants[edit]

Sino-Xenic (中國):

Others:

Etymology 2[edit]

Orthographic borrowing from Japanese (ちゅう)(ごく) (Chūgoku), from Chinese 中國 (MC ʈɨuŋ kwək̚, “the central part of a country”).

Proper noun[edit]

中國

  1. (~地方, 地區) the Chūgoku region of Japan

Etymology 3[edit]

Semantic loan from Sanskrit मध्यदेशे m sg (madhyadeśe, locative, literally in the Middle Country) (Aṣṭasāhasrikā Prajñāpāramitā; see Karashima, 2010) or मध्येषु जनपदेषु m pl (madhyeṣu janapadeṣu, in [the] central countries) (Abhidharmakośakārikā); as opposed to the 邊地边地 (biāndì, “borderlands; frontiers”), from Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit प्रत्यन्तिम (pratyantima) / प्रत्यन्त (pratyanta) or Pali paccantima. Cognate to the Pali majjhimesu janapadesu (locative, literally in the middlemost countries) in the text parallel to the Ekottara Āgama in the Pali Canon.

Noun[edit]

中國

  1. (Buddhism) "central countries"; lands with advanced civilization and other conditions helpful for teaching Buddhism

Japanese[edit]

Kanji in this term
ちゅう
Grade: 1
こく > ごく
Jinmeiyō
on’yomi

Proper noun[edit]

(ちゅう)(ごく) (Chūgoku (kyūjitai, shinjitai 中国)

  1. Kyūjitai form of 中国 (China)

Korean[edit]

Hanja in this term

Proper noun[edit]

中國 (Jungguk) (hangeul 중국)

  1. Hanja form? of 중국 (China).

Vietnamese[edit]

Hán tự in this term

Proper noun[edit]

中國

  1. chữ Hán form of Trung Quốc (China).

Zhuang[edit]

Proper noun[edit]

中國

  1. Sawndip form of Cunghgoz