|middle; center||flowery; flourishing; magnificent|
So named because the first ancient Chinese settlements were around the Yellow River, which was considered to be the center, and because the culture was considered to be magnificent and flourishing.
First attested in Huan Wen's memorial recommending Qiao Xiu (dated [347 CE]), quoted in Sun Sheng's lost Annals of Jin (晉陽秋) [4th century] and later quoted in Pei Songzhi's Annotations [early 5th century] to Chen Shou's Records of the Three Kingdoms [late 3rd century].
Pei himself uses 中華 when annotating Chen's "Biography of Zhuge Liang"
- (formal, poetic, exalted) China (the civilization of China; nowadays, the nation of the Chinese people)
- 振興中華／振兴中华 ― zhènxīng Zhōnghuá ― to revitalize China
- 中華名小吃／中华名小吃 ― Zhōnghuá míngxiǎochī ― famous Chinese snack
- 中華文化／中华文化 ― Zhōnghuá wénhuà ― Chinese culture
- 中華文明／中华文明 ― Zhōnghuá wénmíng ― Chinese civilization
- 中華世紀壇／中华世纪坛 ― Zhōnghuá shìjì tán ― China Millennium Monument
- 中華衣冠我着服，中華詩書我誦讀。我三師尊中華義諦聞亦多，白首常我中華歌。天下人，傾耳聽我中華歌。 [Korean Literary Sinitic, trad.]
- From: 《中華歌》("Song of zhonghua") by Yu Inseok, circa 1910
- 중화의관(을) 아착복(하고) 중화시서(를) 아송독(하니라). 아삼사존중화의체(를) 문역다(하야) 백수상아중화가(하니) 천하인(아) 경이청아중화가(하라).
Junghwa uigwan[-eul] a chakbok[-hago] Junghwa siseo[-reul] a songdok[-hanira]. A sam sa jon Junghwa uiche[-reul] mun yeok da[-haya] baeksu sang a Junghwa ga[-hani] cheonha in[-a] gyeong'i cheong a Junghwa ga[-hara]. [Sino-Korean]
- I wear the robes of zhonghua and recite the literature of zhonghua. I have indeed heard much from my three teachers about the reasons one should venerate zhonghua, so that even with hoary hair, I always sing of zhonghua. People of the world, lend me your ears; listen to my song for zhonghua.
- (～里) An urban village in Songshan district, Taipei, Taiwan
- In traditional East Asian thought, 華／华 (Huá) or 中華／中华 (Zhōnghuá), often translated as "Chinese", has a philosophical connotation of civilizedness and decorous behavior that transcends a strictly ethnic definition. This is in opposition to "foreigners" or "barbarians", 夷 (yí) or 夷狄 (yídí), whose cultures are uncivilized and lacking in proper morality. Therefore, in certain contexts, other nations of the East Asian cultural sphere could refer to themselves as 中華／中华 (Zhōnghuá) in the sense that they were civilized people following the classical traditions first established in Ancient China, without meaning that they saw themselves as Chinese in an ethnic sense.
- Although also used in the formal names of both the Republic and People's Republic of China, the term carries a somewhat broader sense than 中國／中国 (Zhōngguó, “state of China”) and connotes something like the "nation of the Chinese people" or "land of the Chinese culture".
|Kanji in this term|
- (usually in compounds) China, Chinese (adjective)
- Short for .; Chinese
- 中華街 (chūkagai, “Chinatown”)
- 中華圏 (chūkaken)
- 中華丼 (chūka donburi), 中華丼 (chūka don)
- 中華鍋 (chūka nabe, “wok”)
- 中華思想 (chūka shisō)
- 中華蕎麦 (chūka soba)
- 中華台北 (Chūka Taipei)
- 中華饅頭 (chūka manjū, “Chinese steamed bun; mantou”)
- 中華民国 (Chūka Minkoku)
- 中華料理 (chūka ryōri, “Chinese cuisine”)
- 中華革命党 (Chūka Kakumeitō, “Kuomintang”)
- 中華人民共和国 (Chūka Jinmin Kyōwakoku, “People's Republic of China”)
|Hanja in this term|
|Hán tự in this term|