中華

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See also: 中华

Chinese[edit]

middle; center flowery; flourishing; magnificent
trad. (中華)
simp. (中华)
anagram 華中华中
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Etymology[edit]

So named because the first ancient Chinese settlements were around the Yellow River, which was considered to be the center, and because the culture was considered to be magnificent and flourishing.

First attested in Huan Wen's memorial recommending Qiao Xiu (dated [347 CE]), quoted in Sun Sheng's lost Annals of Jin (晉陽秋) [4th century] and later quoted in Pei Songzhi's Annotations [early 5th century] to Chen Shou's Records of the Three Kingdoms [late 3rd century].

皇極道消群黎顛沛中華顧瞻幽谷遷喬 [Literary Chinese, trad.]
皇极道消群黎颠沛中华顾瞻幽谷迁乔 [Literary Chinese, simp.]
From: Pei Songzhi, Annotations to Records of the Three Kingdoms, circa 5th century CE
Yú shí huángjí gòu dàoxiāo zhī huì, qúnlí dǎo diānpèi zhī jiān, zhōnghuá yǒu gùzhān zhī āi, yōugǔ wú qiānqiáo zhī wàng. [Pinyin]
At this time, the imperial court has encountered a time of decline in the Way, the peasants have been trampled down by oppressive hardships, Zhonghua has the anguish of looking backward [toward the former capital at Luoyang], and the dark valley has no hope of moving upward.

Pei himself uses 中華 when annotating Chen's "Biography of Zhuge Liang"

使游步中華龍光沈翳 [Literary Chinese, trad.]
使游步中华龙光沈翳 [Literary Chinese, simp.]
From: Pei Songzhi, Annotations to Records of the Three Kingdoms, circa 5th century CE
Ruò shǐ yóubù Zhōnghuá, chěng qí lóngguāng, qǐ fū duō shì suǒ néng chényì zāi! [Pinyin]
(please add an English translation of this example)

Pronunciation[edit]



Rime
Character
Reading # 1/2 1/3
Initial () (9) (33)
Final () (2) (99)
Tone (調) Level (Ø) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open Closed
Division () III II
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ʈɨuŋ/ /ɦˠua/
Pan
Wuyun
/ʈiuŋ/ /ɦʷᵚa/
Shao
Rongfen
/ȶiuŋ/ /ɣua/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ʈuwŋ/ /ɦwaɨ/
Li
Rong
/ȶiuŋ/ /ɣua/
Wang
Li
/ȶĭuŋ/ /ɣwa/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ȶi̯uŋ/ /ɣwa/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
zhōng huá
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
zung1 waa4
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/2 2/3
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
zhōng huá
Middle
Chinese
‹ trjuwng › ‹ hwæ ›
Old
Chinese
/*truŋ/ /*N-qʷʰˁra/
English center flower (v.); flowery (adj.)

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/2 2/3
No. 17407 5312
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0 0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*tuŋ/ /*ɡʷraː/
Notes

Proper noun[edit]

中華

  1. (formal, poetic, exalted) China (the civilization of China; nowadays, the nation of the Chinese people)
    振興中華振兴中华  ―  zhènxīng Zhōnghuá  ―  to revitalize China
    中華名小吃中华名小吃  ―  Zhōnghuá míngxiǎochī  ―  famous Chinese snack
    中華文化中华文化  ―  Zhōnghuá wénhuà  ―  Chinese culture
    中華文明中华文明  ―  Zhōnghuá wénmíng  ―  Chinese civilization
    中華世紀中华世纪  ―  Zhōnghuá shìjì tán  ―  China Millennium Monument
    • 中華衣冠着服中華詩書誦讀中華義諦白首中華天下傾耳中華 [Korean Literary Sinitic, trad.]
      From: 《中華歌》("Song of zhonghua") by Yu Inseok, circa 1910
      중화의관() 아착복() 중화시서() 아송독(니라). 아삼사존중화의체() 문역다() 백수상아중화() 천하인() 경이청아중화().
      Junghwa uigwan[-eul] a chakbok[-hago] Junghwa siseo[-reul] a songdok[-hanira]. A sam sa jon Junghwa uiche[-reul] mun yeok da[-haya] baeksu sang a Junghwa ga[-hani] cheonha in[-a] gyeong'i cheong a Junghwa ga[-hara].
      [Sino-Korean]
      I wear the robes of zhonghua and recite the literature of zhonghua. I have indeed heard much from my three teachers about the reasons one should venerate zhonghua, so that even with hoary hair, I always sing of zhonghua. People of the world, lend me your ears; listen to my song for zhonghua.
  2. () An urban village in Songshan district, Taipei, Taiwan

Usage notes[edit]

  • In traditional East Asian thought, (Huá) or 中華中华 (Zhōnghuá), often translated as "Chinese", has a philosophical connotation of civilizedness and decorous behavior that transcends a strictly ethnic definition. This is in opposition to "foreigners" or "barbarians", () or 夷狄 (yídí), whose cultures are uncivilized and lacking in proper morality. Therefore, in certain contexts, other nations of the East Asian cultural sphere could refer to themselves as 中華中华 (Zhōnghuá) in the sense that they were civilized people following the classical traditions first established in Ancient China, without meaning that they saw themselves as Chinese in an ethnic sense.
  • Although also used in the formal names of both the Republic and People's Republic of China, the term carries a somewhat broader sense than 中國中国 (Zhōngguó, “state of China”) and connotes something like the "nation of the Chinese people" or "land of the Chinese culture".

Synonyms[edit]

  • (China):
edit

Derived terms[edit]

Descendants[edit]

Sino-Xenic (中華):

Others:


Japanese[edit]

Kanji in this term
ちゅう
Grade: 1

Grade: S
on’yomi

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

(ちゅう)() (chūka

  1. (Internet slang) product that is made by Chinese company

Adjective[edit]

(ちゅう)() (chūka

  1. (Internet slang) made by Chinese company

Proper noun[edit]

(ちゅう)() (Chūka

  1. (usually in compounds) China, Chinese (adjective)
  2. Short for 中華料理 (chūka ryōri, Chinese cuisine).; Chinese
    今晩(こんばん)中華(ちゅうか)する
    konban chūka suru ka
    Are we having Chinese food tonight?

Derived terms[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN

Korean[edit]

Hanja in this term

Proper noun[edit]

中華 (junghwa) (hangeul 중화)

  1. Hanja form? of 중화 (China).

Vietnamese[edit]

Hán tự in this term

Proper noun[edit]

中華

  1. chữ Hán form of Trung Hoa (China).