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Translingual[edit]

Han character[edit]

(radical 30 +6, 9 strokes, cangjie input 卜口竹女 (YRHV), four-corner 00732, composition)

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 188, character 11
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 3580
  • Dae Jaweon: page 407, character 11
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 1, page 620, character 10
  • Unihan data for U+54C0

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.

Pronunciation[edit]

Dialectal pronunciations ()
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /ai⁵⁵/
Harbin /ai⁴⁴/
Tianjin /nai²¹/
Jinan /ŋɛ²¹³/
Qingdao /ɣɛ²¹³/
Zhengzhou /ai²⁴/
Xi'an /ŋai²¹/
Xining /nɛ⁴⁴/
Yinchuan /ɛ⁴⁴/
Lanzhou /ɛ³¹/
Ürümqi /ai⁴⁴/
Wuhan /ŋai⁵⁵/
Chengdu /ŋai⁵⁵/
Guiyang /ŋai⁵⁵/
/ai⁵⁵/
Kunming /æ⁴⁴/
Nanjing /ae³¹/
Hefei /ʐe̞²¹/
Jin Taiyuan /ɣai¹¹/
Pingyao /ŋæ¹³/
Hohhot /ŋɛ³¹/
Wu Shanghai /e⁵³/
Suzhou /e̞⁵⁵/
Hangzhou /ʔe̞³³/
Wenzhou /e³³/
Hui Shexian /ŋɛ³¹/
Tunxi
Xiang Changsha /ŋai³³/
Xiangtan /ŋai³³/
Gan Nanchang /ŋai⁴²/
Hakka Meixian /oi⁴⁴/
Taoyuan /oi²⁴/
Cantonese Guangzhou /ɔi⁵³/
Nanning /ɔi⁵⁵/
Hong Kong /ɔi⁵⁵/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /ai⁵⁵/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /ai⁴⁴/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /uɛ⁵⁴/
Shantou (Min Nan) /ai³³/
Haikou (Min Nan) /ai²³/
Middle Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Character (), Pronunciation 1/1

Initial: (34)
Final:
Division: I

Openness: Open
Tone: Level (Ø)

Fanqie:
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Bernard
Karlgren
Li
Rong
Pan
Wuyun
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Wang
Li
Shao
Rongfen
/ʔʌi/ /ʔɑ̆i/ /ʔᴀi/ /ʔəi/ /ʔəj/ /ɒi/ /ʔɒi/
Old Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character Modern Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle Chinese Old Chinese English
āi ‹ ʔoj › /*ʔˤəj/ to pity; sad

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

  • Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
  • Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
  • Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
  • Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;
  • Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character No. Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
Corresponding
MC rime
Old Chinese Notes
14835 1 /*qɯːl/

Definitions[edit]

  1. to lament; to mourn
      ―  āidào  ―  to lament, to mourn
      ―  āiqiú  ―  to beg, to implore
  2. sad, mournful, pitiful, sorrowful
  3. pity; grief
      ―  āitòng  ―  to grieve, grief

Compounds[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(common “Jōyō” kanji)

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Readings[edit]


Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

‎(ae) (hangeul , McCune-Reischauer ae)

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Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(ai)

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