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See also: and
U+70CF, 烏
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-70CF

[U+70CE]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+70D0]

Translingual[edit]

Han character[edit]

(radical 86, +6, 10 strokes, cangjie input 竹口卜火 (HRYF), four-corner 27327, composition丿⿹⿺)

Derived characters[edit]

Related characters[edit]

References[edit]

Wikidata has structured data related to:

Wikidata

  • KangXi: page 670, character 1
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 18998
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1079, character 2
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 3, page 2202, character 3
  • Unihan data for U+70CF

Chinese[edit]

trad.
simp.

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Western Zhou Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han)
Bronze inscriptions Small seal script
烏-bronze.svg 烏-seal.svg
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*qaː
*qaː
*qaː
*qaː
*qaː
*qaː, *qaːʔ
*qaː, *qaːʔ, *qas
*qaː
*qaːʔ
*qaːʔ, *qaːs
*qaːʔ

Pictogram (象形) – a bird. Compare (“bird”), of similar development.

Etymology[edit]

crow
Onomatopoeic (*qaː). Cognate with (OC *qraː, “crow; raven”), which retains the earlier vowel in Middle Chinese (*ʔˠa).
black, dark
Generalized from crow – “black as a crow”. Compare (OC *hmlɯːɡ, “black as ink”).
Interrogative pronoun
Related to the following interrogative pronouns with similar phonological shapes in Old Chinese (Wang, 1982), with differing suffixes:
  • (OC *qran, *ɢan, *qan)
  • (OC *qaː, *qaːɡs, *qaːɡ)
  • (OC *qaːn)

Pronunciation[edit]


Note: "wù" - only used in 烏拉乌拉 (wùlā).
Note:
  • ou1 - vernacular;
  • u1 - literary.
  • Wu

    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location
    Mandarin Beijing /u⁵⁵/
    Harbin /u⁴⁴/
    Tianjin /u²¹/
    Jinan /u²¹³/
    Qingdao /vu²¹³/
    Zhengzhou /u²⁴/
    Xi'an /u²¹/
    Xining /v̩⁴⁴/
    Yinchuan /vu⁴⁴/
    Lanzhou /vu³¹/
    Ürümqi /vu⁴⁴/
    Wuhan /u⁵⁵/
    Chengdu /u⁵⁵/
    Guiyang /u⁵⁵/
    Kunming /u⁴⁴/
    Nanjing /u³¹/
    Hefei /u²¹/
    Jin Taiyuan /vu¹¹/
    Pingyao /u¹³/
    Hohhot /vu³¹/
    Wu Shanghai /u⁵³/
    Suzhou /əu⁵⁵/
    Hangzhou /ʔu³³/
    Wenzhou /v̠u³³/
    Hui Shexian /u³¹/
    Tunxi /u¹¹/
    Xiang Changsha /u³³/
    Xiangtan /u³³/
    Gan Nanchang /u⁴²/
    Hakka Meixian /vu⁴⁴/
    Taoyuan /vu²⁴/
    Cantonese Guangzhou /wu⁵³/
    Nanning /wu⁵⁵/
    Hong Kong /wu⁵⁵/
    Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /ɔ⁵⁵/
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /u⁴⁴/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /u⁵⁴/
    Shantou (Min Nan) /ou³³/
    Haikou (Min Nan) /u²³/
    /ɔu²³/

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (34)
    Final () (23)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () I
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /ʔuo/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /ʔuo/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /ʔo/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /ʔɔ/
    Li
    Rong
    /ʔo/
    Wang
    Li
    /u/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /ʔuo/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/3 2/3 3/3
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ ʔu › ‹ ʔu › ‹ ʔu ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*[ʔ]ˁa/ /*qˁa/ /*ʔˁa/
    English oh! crow, raven; black 烏桓, 烏丸 Wūhuán: Avars (W. Hàn)

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 13077
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*qaː/

    Definitions[edit]

    1. crow; raven; rook
    2. sun
    3. (literary or Hakka, Min) black; dark
    4. to dye black
    5. An interrogative pronoun with a variety of meanings, including “how”, “why”, “where”, etc.
    6. no; not
    7. A surname​.

    See also[edit]

    Dialectal synonyms of (“black”) [map]
    Variety Location Words
    Classical Chinese
    Formal (Written Standard Chinese)
    Mandarin Beijing
    Taiwan
    Tianjin
    Jinan
    Xi'an
    Wuhan
    Chengdu
    Yangzhou
    Hefei
    Cantonese Guangzhou
    Hong Kong
    Yangjiang
    Gan Nanchang
    Hakka Meixian
    Jin Taiyuan
    Min Bei Jian'ou
    Min Dong Fuzhou
    Min Nan Xiamen
    Quanzhou
    Zhangzhou
    Taipei
    Chaozhou
    Wu Shanghai
    Suzhou
    Wenzhou
    Xiang Changsha
    Shuangfeng

    Compounds[edit]


    Japanese[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    (“Jinmeiyō” kanji used for names)

    Readings[edit]

    Compounds[edit]

    Alternative forms[edit]

    • (less common)

    Etymology[edit]

    Japanese Wikipedia has an article on:
    Wikipedia ja
    English Wikipedia has an article on:
    Wikipedia
    English Wikipedia has an article on:
    Wikipedia
    (karasu): a raven, a raven.

    Compound of から (kara, caw, onomatopoeia, imitative of a crow's caw) +‎ (su, bird, ancient suffix appearing in certain bird names, possibly cognate with Korean (sae, bird)).[1] Compare the (su) in (uguisu), 杜鵑 (hototogisu), モズ (mozu).

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana からす, katakana カラス, rōmaji karasu)

    1. a crow or a raven

    Usage notes[edit]

    This is the most common reading for this character when used in isolation in modern Japanese.

    As with many terms that name organisms, this term is often spelled in katakana, especially in biological contexts, as カラス.

    Synonyms[edit]

    Derived terms[edit]

    References[edit]

    1. ^ 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
    2. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
    3. ^ 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN

    Kikai[edit]

    Alternative forms[edit]

    Etymology[edit]

    Cognate with mainland Japanese (karasu).

    Kanji[edit]

    (hiragana がらさー, romaji garasā, hiragana がるさー, romaji garusā)

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana がらさー, romaji garasā, hiragana がるさー, romaji garusā)

    1. crow, raven

    Korean[edit]

    Hanja[edit]

    (o) (hangeul , revised o, McCune–Reischauer o, Yale o)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    Northern Amami-Oshima[edit]

    Alternative forms[edit]

    Etymology[edit]

    Cognate with mainland Japanese (karasu).

    Kanji[edit]

    (hiragana からすぃ, romaji karasi)

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana からすぃ, romaji karasi)

    1. crow, raven

    Oki-No-Erabu[edit]

    Alternative forms[edit]

    Etymology[edit]

    Cognate with mainland Japanese (karasu).

    Kanji[edit]

    (hiragana がらし, romaji garashi)

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana がらし, romaji garashi)

    1. crow, raven

    Okinawan[edit]

    Alternative forms[edit]

    Etymology[edit]

    Cognate with mainland Japanese (karasu).

    Kanji[edit]

    (hiragana がらし, romaji garashi)

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana がらし, romaji garashi)

    1. crow, raven

    Vietnamese[edit]

    Han character[edit]

    (ô, o, dặng)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    Yonaguni[edit]

    Alternative forms[edit]

    Etymology[edit]

    Cognate with mainland Japanese (karasu).

    Kanji[edit]

    (hiragana がらち, romaji garachi)

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana がらち, romaji garachi)

    1. crow, raven