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U+70CF, 烏
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-70CF

[U+70CE]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+70D0]
See also: and

Translingual[edit]

Han character[edit]

A black crow

(radical 86 +6, 10 strokes, cangjie input 竹口卜火 (HRYF), four-corner 27327)

Synonyms[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 670, character 1
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 18998
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1079, character 2
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 3, page 2202, character 3
  • Unihan data for U+70CF

Chinese[edit]

trad.
simp.

Glyph origin[edit]

Pictogram (象形) – a bird. Compare (“bird”), of similar development.

Sense “black, dark” generalized from crow – “black as a crow”. Compare (OC *hmlɯːɡ, “black as ink”).

Etymology[edit]

“Crow”: Onomatopoeic (*qaː). Cognate with (OC *qraː, “crow; raven”), which retains the earlier vowel in Middle Chinese (*ʔˠa).

Interrogative pronoun: Related to the following interrogative pronouns with similar phonological shapes in Old Chinese (Wang, 1982), with differing suffixes:

  • (OC *qran, *ɢan, *qan)
  • (OC *qaː, *qaːɡs, *qaːɡ)
  • (OC *qaːn)

Pronunciation[edit]



  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /u⁵⁵/
Harbin /u⁴⁴/
Tianjin /u²¹/
Jinan /u²¹³/
Qingdao /vu²¹³/
Zhengzhou /u²⁴/
Xi'an /u²¹/
Xining /v̩⁴⁴/
Yinchuan /vu⁴⁴/
Lanzhou /vu³¹/
Ürümqi /vu⁴⁴/
Wuhan /u⁵⁵/
Chengdu /u⁵⁵/
Guiyang /u⁵⁵/
Kunming /u⁴⁴/
Nanjing /u³¹/
Hefei /u²¹/
Jin Taiyuan /vu¹¹/
Pingyao /u¹³/
Hohhot /vu³¹/
Wu Shanghai /u⁵³/
Suzhou /əu⁵⁵/
Hangzhou /ʔu³³/
Wenzhou /v̠u³³/
Hui Shexian /u³¹/
Tunxi /u¹¹/
Xiang Changsha /u³³/
Xiangtan /u³³/
Gan Nanchang /u⁴²/
Hakka Meixian /vu⁴⁴/
Taoyuan /vu²⁴/
Cantonese Guangzhou /wu⁵³/
Nanning /wu⁵⁵/
Hong Kong /wu⁵⁵/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /ɔ⁵⁵/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /u⁴⁴/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /u⁵⁴/
Shantou (Min Nan) /ou³³/
Haikou (Min Nan) /u²³/
/ɔu²³/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (34)
Final () (23)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () I
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ʔuo/
Pan
Wuyun
/ʔuo/
Shao
Rongfen
/ʔo/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ʔɔ/
Li
Rong
/ʔo/
Wang
Li
/u/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ʔuo/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/3 2/3 3/3
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle
Chinese
‹ ʔu › ‹ ʔu › ‹ ʔu ›
Old
Chinese
/*[ʔ]ˤa/ /*qˤa/ /*ʔˤa/
English oh! crow, raven; black 烏桓, 烏丸 Wūhuán: Avars (W. Hàn)

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 13077
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*qaː/

Definitions[edit]

  1. crow; raven; rook
  2. sun
  3. (literary or Hakka, Min) black; dark
    烏烏落雨 [Min Nan, trad.]
    乌乌落雨 [Min Nan, simp.]
    From: 天烏烏 (A Hokkien nursery rhyme)
    Thiⁿ o͘-o͘, beh lo̍h-hō͘. [Pe̍h-ōe-jī]
    The sky is dark; it seems like it will rain.
  4. to dye black
  5. An interrogative pronoun with a variety of meanings, including “how”, “why”, “where”, etc.
  6. no; not
  7. A surname​.

See also[edit]

Dialectal synonyms of (“black”)
Variety Location Words
Classical Chinese
Formal (Written Standard Chinese)
Mandarin Beijing
Taiwan
Tianjin
Jinan
Xi'an
Wuhan
Chengdu
Yangzhou
Hefei
Cantonese Guangzhou
Hong Kong
Yangjiang
Gan Nanchang
Hakka Meixian
Jin Taiyuan
Min Bei Jian'ou
Min Dong Fuzhou
Min Nan Xiamen
Quanzhou
Zhangzhou
Taipei
Chaozhou
Wu Shanghai
Suzhou
Wenzhou
Xiang Changsha
Shuangfeng

Compounds[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(“Jinmeiyō” kanji used for names)

Readings[edit]

Compounds[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Japanese Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia ja
Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia
Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia
(karasu): a crow, a raven.
Kanji in this term
からす
Jinmeiyō
kun'yomi

Compound of から(kara, caw, onomatopoeia) +‎ (su, bird?, ancient suffix appearing in certain bird names).[1] Compare the (su) in (uguisu), 杜鵑(hototogisu).

Pronunciation[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Noun[edit]

‎(hiragana からす, katakana カラス, romaji karasu)

  1. a crow; a raven

Usage notes[edit]

This is the most common reading for this character when used in isolation in modern Japanese.

As with many terms that name organisms, this term is often spelled in katakana in biological contexts, as カラス.

Synonyms[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
  2. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, ISBN 4-385-13905-9
  3. ^ 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, ISBN 978-4-14-011112-3

Kikai[edit]

Kanji[edit]

‎(hiragana がらさー, romaji garasā, hiragana がるさー, romaji garusā)

Etymology[edit]

Cognate with mainland Japanese (karasu).

Alternative forms[edit]

Noun[edit]

‎(hiragana がらさー, romaji garasā, hiragana がるさー, romaji garusā)

  1. crow, raven

Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

‎(o) (hangeul , revised o, McCune-Reischauer o, Yale o)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

Northern Amami-Oshima[edit]

Kanji[edit]

‎(hiragana からすぃ, romaji karasi)

Etymology[edit]

Cognate with mainland Japanese (karasu).

Alternative forms[edit]

Noun[edit]

‎(hiragana からすぃ, romaji karasi)

  1. crow, raven

Oki-No-Erabu[edit]

Kanji[edit]

‎(hiragana がらし, romaji garashi)

Etymology[edit]

Cognate with mainland Japanese (karasu).

Alternative forms[edit]

Noun[edit]

‎(hiragana がらし, romaji garashi)

  1. crow, raven

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(ô, o, dặng)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

Yonaguni[edit]

Kanji[edit]

‎(hiragana がらち, romaji garachi)

Etymology[edit]

Cognate with mainland Japanese (karasu).

Alternative forms[edit]

Noun[edit]

‎(hiragana がらち, romaji garachi)

  1. crow, raven