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See also: and
U+70CF, 烏
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-70CF

[U+70CE]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+70D0]

Translingual[edit]

Han character[edit]

(radical 86, +6, 10 strokes, cangjie input 竹口卜火 (HRYF), four-corner 27327, composition丿⿹⿺)

Derived characters[edit]

Related characters[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 670, character 1
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 18998
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1079, character 2
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 3, page 2202, character 3
  • Unihan data for U+70CF

Chinese[edit]

trad.
simp.

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Western Zhou Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han)
Bronze inscriptions Small seal script
烏-bronze.svg 烏-seal.svg

Pictogram (象形) – a bird. Compare (“bird”), of similar development.

Etymology[edit]

“crow; black; dark”
From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *ka-n (crow) (STEDT). Cognate with (OC *qraː, “crow; raven”), which retains the earlier vowel in Middle Chinese (*ʔˠa), and (OC *la, *las, “jackdaw”).
Schuessler (2007) considers it to be onomatopoeic, and compares it with Proto-Loloish *akᴸ (crow).
“Black; dark” is a semantic extension of “crow” – “black as a crow”. Compare (OC *hmlɯːɡ, “black”), which is cognate with (OC *mlɯːɡ, “ink”).
interrogative pronoun
Related to the following interrogative pronouns with similar phonological shapes in Old Chinese (Wang, 1982), with differing suffixes:
  • (OC *qan, *qran, “how; where”)
  • (OC *qaː, “how”)
  • (OC *qaːn, “where; how; why”)

Pronunciation[edit]


Note: "wù" - only used in 烏拉乌拉 (wùla).
Note:
  • ou1 - vernacular;
  • u1 - literary.
  • Wu

    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location
    Mandarin Beijing /u⁵⁵/
    Harbin /u⁴⁴/
    Tianjin /u²¹/
    Jinan /u²¹³/
    Qingdao /vu²¹³/
    Zhengzhou /u²⁴/
    Xi'an /u²¹/
    Xining /v̩⁴⁴/
    Yinchuan /vu⁴⁴/
    Lanzhou /vu³¹/
    Ürümqi /vu⁴⁴/
    Wuhan /u⁵⁵/
    Chengdu /u⁵⁵/
    Guiyang /u⁵⁵/
    Kunming /u⁴⁴/
    Nanjing /u³¹/
    Hefei /u²¹/
    Jin Taiyuan /vu¹¹/
    Pingyao /u¹³/
    Hohhot /vu³¹/
    Wu Shanghai /u⁵³/
    Suzhou /əu⁵⁵/
    Hangzhou /ʔu³³/
    Wenzhou /v̠u³³/
    Hui Shexian /u³¹/
    Tunxi /u¹¹/
    Xiang Changsha /u³³/
    Xiangtan /u³³/
    Gan Nanchang /u⁴²/
    Hakka Meixian /vu⁴⁴/
    Taoyuan /vu²⁴/
    Cantonese Guangzhou /wu⁵³/
    Nanning /wu⁵⁵/
    Hong Kong /wu⁵⁵/
    Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /ɔ⁵⁵/
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /u⁴⁴/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /u⁵⁴/
    Shantou (Min Nan) /ou³³/
    Haikou (Min Nan) /u²³/
    /ɔu²³/

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (34)
    Final () (23)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () I
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /ʔuo/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /ʔuo/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /ʔo/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /ʔɔ/
    Li
    Rong
    /ʔo/
    Wang
    Li
    /u/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /ʔuo/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/3 2/3 3/3
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ ʔu › ‹ ʔu › ‹ ʔu ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*[ʔ]ˁa/ /*qˁa/ /*ʔˁa/
    English oh! crow, raven; black 烏桓, 烏丸 Wūhuán: Avars (W. Hàn)

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 13077
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*qaː/

    Definitions[edit]

    1. crow; raven; rook
    2. sun
    3. (literary or Hakka, Min) black; dark
    4. to dye black
    5. An interrogative pronoun with a variety of meanings, including “how”, “why”, “where”, etc.
    6. no; not
    7. A surname​.
    8. () Synonym of 大肚, a river on Taiwan Island

    Synonyms[edit]

    See also[edit]

    Compounds[edit]


    Japanese[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    (“Jinmeiyō” kanji used for names)

    Readings[edit]

    Compounds[edit]

    Etymology 1[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    からす
    Jinmeiyō
    kun’yomi
    For pronunciation and definitions of – see the following entry.
    からすカラス
    [noun] a crow or raven
    Alternative spellings
    , , からす
    (This term, , is an alternative spelling of the above term.)

    Etymology 2[edit]

    Kanji in this term

    Jinmeiyō
    goon

    From Middle Chinese (MC ʔuo).

    The goon pronunciation, so likely the initial borrowing.

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Affix[edit]

    () (u

    1. crow; raven
    2. black; dark
    3. (figuratively) sun
    4. A Chinese interrogative for rhetorical questions.
      ()(ゆう)u(literally “not-have”) nonexistence; nothing
    Derived terms[edit]

    Kikai[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    (hiragana がらさー, romaji garasā, hiragana がるさー, romaji garusā)

    Etymology[edit]

    Cognate with Japanese (karasu).

    Alternative forms[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana がらさー, romaji garasā, hiragana がるさー, romaji garusā)

    1. crow, raven

    Korean[edit]

    Hanja[edit]

    (o) (hangeul , revised o, McCune–Reischauer o, Yale o)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    Northern Amami-Oshima[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    (hiragana からすぃ, romaji karasi)

    Etymology[edit]

    Cognate with Japanese (karasu).

    Alternative forms[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana からすぃ, romaji karasi)

    1. crow, raven

    Oki-No-Erabu[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    (hiragana がらし, romaji garashi)

    Etymology[edit]

    Cognate with Japanese (karasu).

    Alternative forms[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana がらし, romaji garashi)

    1. crow, raven

    Okinawan[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    (hiragana がらし, romaji garashi)

    Etymology[edit]

    Cognate with Japanese (karasu).

    Alternative forms[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana がらし, romaji garashi)

    1. crow, raven

    Vietnamese[edit]

    Han character[edit]

    (ô, o, dặng)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    Yonaguni[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    (hiragana がらち, romaji garachi)

    Etymology[edit]

    Cognate with Japanese (karasu).

    Alternative forms[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana がらち, romaji garachi)

    1. crow, raven