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U+9CE5, 鳥
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-9CE5

[U+9CE4]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+9CE6]

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
鳥-order.gif

Han character[edit]

(radical 196 +0, 11 strokes, cangjie input 竹日卜火 (HAYF), four-corner 27327)

  1. Kangxi radical #196, .

Derived characters[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 1480, character 52
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 46634
  • Dae Jaweon: page 2012, character 25
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 7, page 4613, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+9CE5

Chinese[edit]

trad.
simp.
Harpyhaliaetus coronatus.jpg

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Small seal script
鳥-oracle.svg 鳥-bronze.svg 鳥-seal.svg
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*tuːwʔ
*taːwʔ
*rtɯːw, *rtɯːw, *tjiw
*tɯːw
*tɯːwʔ
*tɯːwʔ, *tɯːws
*tɯːws

Pictogram (象形): a bird with a dangling tail.

Compare , which is very similar, of similar origin, and , which originated from a similar image of a bird, but is today rather more abstract and less recognizable.

Compare also (“horse”), whose current form is similar (graphically, for claws/legs).

Etymology[edit]

Originally pronounced with a /t-/ initial (compare (OC *tuːwʔ, “island”)). In many dialects, it changed to a /n-/ initial to avoid homophony with the vulgar word (diǎo, “penis”), which may ultimately have developed from the sense “bird”. Birds/fowl are characteristically associated with Chinese slangs for genitalia; compare (“sparrow > penis”) and (“chicken > penis”).

Alternatively, Schuessler (2007) hypothesised that the /n-/ initial form for “bird” may be unrelated to the /t-/ form. Instead, it may be connected with the Tai-Kadai word for bird; confer Proto-Tai *C̬.nokᴰ (bird), whence Thai นก (nók).

The /t-/ form may be derived from Proto-Sino-Tibetan *daw (bird), cognate with Proto-Karen *thoᴮ (“bird”) and Proto-Bodo-Garo *daw/dow (“bird”).

Pronunciation 1[edit]


Note:
  • tiâu - vernacular;
  • niâu - literary.
Note:
  • cēu - vernacular;
  • nēu - literary.
Note:
  • chiáu - vernacular;
  • niáu - literary.
Note:
  • 2tiau - vernacular;
  • 2'nyau - literary.

  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /niɑu²¹⁴/
Harbin /niau²¹³/
Tianjin /niɑu¹³/
Jinan /tiɔ⁵⁵/
Qingdao /niɔ⁵⁵/
Zhengzhou /niau⁵³/
Xi'an /niau⁵³/
Xining /ȵiɔ⁵³/
Yinchuan /niɔ⁵³/
Lanzhou /ȵiɔ⁴⁴²/
Ürümqi /ȵiɔ⁵¹/
Wuhan /niau⁴²/
Chengdu /ȵiau⁵³/
Guiyang /niao⁴²/
Kunming /niɔ⁵³/
Nanjing /liɔo²¹²/
Hefei /liɔ⁵⁵/
/tiɔ²⁴/
Jin Taiyuan /niau⁵³/
Pingyao /ȵiɔ⁵³/
Hohhot /niɔ⁵³/
Wu Shanghai /tiɔ⁵³/
/ȵiɔ⁵³/
Suzhou /ȵiæ⁵¹/
/tiæ⁵¹/
Hangzhou /ȵiɔ⁵³/
Wenzhou /ȵa³⁵/
Hui Shexian /niɔ³⁵/ 飛~
/tiɔ³⁵/ 啄木~
Tunxi /liun²⁴/
/lin²⁴/
Xiang Changsha /ȵiau⁴¹/
/tiau⁴¹/
Xiangtan /tiaɯ⁴²/
Gan Nanchang /ȵiɛu²¹³/
Hakka Meixian /tiau⁴⁴/ ~兒
/tiau³¹/ 罵人話
Taoyuan /ŋiɑu²⁴/
Cantonese Guangzhou /niu²³/
Nanning /tiu³⁵/
/niu²⁴/
Hong Kong /niu¹³/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /tiau⁵³/
/niau⁵³/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /t͡sɛu³²/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /niau²¹/
Shantou (Min Nan) /t͡siau⁵³/
Haikou (Min Nan) /t͡siau²¹³/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (5)
Final () (93)
Tone (調) Rising (X)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () IV
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/teuX/
Pan
Wuyun
/teuX/
Shao
Rongfen
/teuX/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/tɛwX/
Li
Rong
/teuX/
Wang
Li
/tieuX/
Bernard
Karlgren
/tieuX/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
diǎo
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
niǎo
Middle
Chinese
‹ tewX ›
Old
Chinese
/*tˤiwʔ/
English bird

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 9511
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
2
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*tɯːwʔ/

Definitions[edit]

  1. bird (Classifier: m;  m)
    /   ―  yǎngniǎo  ―  to breed birds
  2. (dialectal) to pay attention; to heed; to take notice of
Synonyms[edit]
Dialectal synonyms of (“bird”) [map]
Variety Location Words
Classical Chinese
Formal (Written Standard Chinese)
Taxonomic name
Mandarin Beijing 鳥兒
Taiwan
Harbin 鳥兒
Jinan 鳥兒
Jiedian 蟲蟻兒
Xuzhou 鳥兒
Yinchuan 鳥鳥子
Ürümqi 雀娃子
Wuhan 雀子
Chengdu 雀雀雀兒鳥兒
Guiyang
Liuzhou 鳥崽
Nanjing
Cantonese Guangzhou 雀仔
Hong Kong 雀仔
Dongguan 雀仔鷝仔
Hong Kong (Weitou) 雀仔
Taishan 雀仔
Gan Lichuan 鳥兒
Pingxiang
Hakka Meixian 鳥仔
Yudu 鳥子
Miaoli (N. Sixian) 鳥仔
Liudui (S. Sixian) 鳥仔
Hsinchu (Hailu) 鳥仔
Dongshi (Dabu)
Zhuolan (Raoping) 鳥仔
Yunlin (Zhao'an)
Hong Kong 鳥仔
Jin Taiyuan 鳥兒
Min Bei Jian'ou 隻仔
Min Dong Fuzhou
Fuqing
Matsu 鳥囝
Min Nan Xiamen 鳥仔
Quanzhou 鳥仔
Zhangzhou 鳥仔
Taipei 鳥仔
Kaohsiung 鳥仔
Tainan 鳥仔
Taichung 鳥仔
Wuqi 鳥仔
Hsinchu 鳥仔
Taitung 鳥仔
Lukang 鳥仔
Yilan 鳥仔
Magong
Penang
Chaozhou
Shantou
Haikou
Leizhou
Pinghua Nanning
Wu Shanghai
Suzhou
Hangzhou 鳥兒
Wenzhou
Chongming
Danyang 雀子
Ningbo
Xiang Changsha
Loudi 鳥唧

Compounds[edit]

Pronunciation 2[edit]


Definitions[edit]

  1. (vulgar) Alternative form of (diǎo).
    1. penis
    2. (intensifier) damned; goddamn
      /   ―  Nǐ zhè diǎo rén!  ―  You fucking prick!

Descendants[edit]

Sino-Xenic ():
  • Japanese:  (ちょう) (chō)
  • Korean: (, jo)
  • Vietnamese: điểu ()

Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

Readings[edit]

Compounds[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Wikipedia-logo.png
  on Japanese Wikipedia
(tori): various kinds of birds.
Kanji in this term
とり
Grade: 2
kun’yomi

From Old Japanese. Probably cognate with Middle Korean ᄃᆞᆰ (tolk), modern Korean (dak, fowl; chicken).

May also be related to the Japanese verb 飛ぶ (tobu, to fly).

Pronunciation[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Noun[edit]

(hiragana とり, rōmaji tori)

  1. a bird
    • [1997 May 16, Amagi, Seimaru; Yozaburo, Kanari; Sato, Fumiya, “ファイル17 らん西ぎんさつじんけん [File 17: The French Silver Coin Murder Case ⑫]”, in きんいちしょうねんけん簿 [Young Kindaichi Case Files], volume 24 (fiction, in Japanese), Tokyo: Kodansha, ISBN 4-06-312406-1:
      せいだって‥⁉あっ‼ち‥‥ちがう!これは「トリ」じゃない‥‥‥「カラス」というになってるぞ‼
      そう!「トリ」と「カラス」はぼうぽんちがいだ つまりかのじょのデータは「ト」のフロッピーではなくあやまって
      ———「カ」のフロッピーに「」としてインプットされてしまったんだ‼]
      Sei no moji datte‥⁉ A'‼ Chi‥‥Chigau! Kore wa “tori” ja nai‥‥‥ “Karasu” to iu ji ni natteru zo‼
      Sō! “Tori” to “karasu” wa bō ippon no chigau da Tsumari kanojo no dēta wa “to” no furoppī de wa naku ayamatte——— “ka” no furoppī ni “KARASUMA” to shite inputto sarete shimattan da‼
      Characters in the surname‥⁉ Oh‼ S‥‥So that’s what it is! It’s not “tori”, the character for “bird”‥‥‥ It’s actually “karasu”, the character for “crow”‼
      That’s right! “Tori” and “karasu” shouldn’t be on the same column, which means her data were input to the “to” disk by accident——— “KARASUMA” is supposed to be on the “ka” disk‼
    • 1999 July 5, “タクヒ [Takuhi]”, in BOOSTER 3 (in Japanese), Konami:
      このトリ (あらわ)れた (とき)は、 (なに) () (きつ) (こと) ()こる (まえ)ぶれ。
      Kono tori ga arawareta toki wa, nani ka fukitsu na koto ga okoru maebure.
      This bird brings bad luck to wherever it comes.
    • 1999 August 26, “セイント・バード [Saint Bird]”, in BOOSTER 4 (in Japanese), Konami:
       () (じょう) () (なが) (とり) (ぜん) (しん)から (せい)なる (ひかり) (はっ)する。
      Hijō ni o no nagai tori. Zenshin kara seinaru hikari o hassuru.
      A bird with an unusually long tail. It illuminates with holy light.
  2. a chicken
  3. fowl or chicken meat

Derived terms[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, ISBN 4-385-13905-9
  2. ^ 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, ISBN 978-4-14-011112-3

Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

(jo) (hangeul , revised jo, McCune-Reischauer cho, Yale co)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(điểu, đeo, đéo, đẽo)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.