Definition from Wiktionary, the free dictionary
Jump to navigation Jump to search
See also: , , , and
U+9CE5, 鳥
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-9CE5

[U+9CE4]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+9CE6]

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
鳥-order.gif

Han character[edit]

(radical 196, +0, 11 strokes, cangjie input 竹日卜火 (HAYF), four-corner 27327)

  1. Kangxi radical #196, .

Derived characters[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 1480, character 52
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 46634
  • Dae Jaweon: page 2012, character 25
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 7, page 4613, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+9CE5

Chinese[edit]

trad.
simp.
Harpyhaliaetus coronatus.jpg

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Small seal script
鳥-oracle.svg 鳥-bronze.svg 鳥-seal.svg
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*tuːwʔ
*taːwʔ
*rtɯːw, *rtɯːw, *tjiw
*tɯːw
*tɯːwʔ
*tɯːwʔ, *tɯːws
*tɯːws

Pictogram (象形): a bird with a dangling tail.

Compare , which is very similar, of similar origin, and , which originated from a similar image of a bird, but is today rather more abstract and less recognizable.

Etymology[edit]

Originally pronounced with a /t-/ initial (compare (OC *tuːwʔ, “island”)). In many dialects, it changed to a /n-/ initial to avoid homophony with the vulgar word (diǎo, “penis”), which may ultimately have developed from the sense “bird”. Birds/fowl are characteristically associated with Chinese slangs for genitalia; compare (“sparrow > penis”) and (“chicken > penis”).

Alternatively, Schuessler (2007) hypothesised that the /n-/ initial form for “bird” may be unrelated to the /t-/ form. Instead, it may be connected with the Tai-Kadai word for bird; confer Proto-Tai *C̬.nokᴰ (bird), whence Thai นก (nók).

The /t-/ form may be derived from Proto-Sino-Tibetan *daw (bird), cognate with Proto-Karen *thoᴮ (“bird”) and Proto-Bodo-Garo *daw/dow (“bird”).

Pronunciation 1[edit]


Note:
  • tiâu - vernacular;
  • niâu - literary.
  • Min Bei
  • Min Dong
  • Note:
    • cēu - vernacular;
    • nēu - literary.
  • Min Nan
  • Note:
    • chiáu - vernacular;
    • niáu - literary.
  • Wu
  • Note:
    • 2tiau - vernacular;
    • 2'nyau - literary.

    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location
    Mandarin Beijing /niɑu²¹⁴/
    Harbin /niau²¹³/
    Tianjin /niɑu¹³/
    Jinan /tiɔ⁵⁵/
    Qingdao /niɔ⁵⁵/
    Zhengzhou /niau⁵³/
    Xi'an /niau⁵³/
    Xining /ȵiɔ⁵³/
    Yinchuan /niɔ⁵³/
    Lanzhou /ȵiɔ⁴⁴²/
    Ürümqi /ȵiɔ⁵¹/
    Wuhan /niau⁴²/
    Chengdu /ȵiau⁵³/
    Guiyang /niao⁴²/
    Kunming /niɔ⁵³/
    Nanjing /liɔo²¹²/
    Hefei /liɔ⁵⁵/
    /tiɔ²⁴/
    Jin Taiyuan /niau⁵³/
    Pingyao /ȵiɔ⁵³/
    Hohhot /niɔ⁵³/
    Wu Shanghai /tiɔ⁵³/
    /ȵiɔ⁵³/
    Suzhou /ȵiæ⁵¹/
    /tiæ⁵¹/
    Hangzhou /ȵiɔ⁵³/
    Wenzhou /ȵa³⁵/
    Hui Shexian /niɔ³⁵/ 飛~
    /tiɔ³⁵/ 啄木~
    Tunxi /liun²⁴/
    /lin²⁴/
    Xiang Changsha /ȵiau⁴¹/
    /tiau⁴¹/
    Xiangtan /tiaɯ⁴²/
    Gan Nanchang /ȵiɛu²¹³/
    Hakka Meixian /tiau⁴⁴/ ~兒
    /tiau³¹/ 罵人話
    Taoyuan /ŋiɑu²⁴/
    Cantonese Guangzhou /niu²³/
    Nanning /tiu³⁵/
    /niu²⁴/
    Hong Kong /niu¹³/
    Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /tiau⁵³/
    /niau⁵³/
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /t͡sɛu³²/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /niau²¹/
    Shantou (Min Nan) /t͡siau⁵³/
    Haikou (Min Nan) /t͡siau²¹³/

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (5)
    Final () (93)
    Tone (調) Rising (X)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () IV
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /teuX/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /teuX/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /teuX/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /tɛwX/
    Li
    Rong
    /teuX/
    Wang
    Li
    /tieuX/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /tieuX/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    diǎo
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    niǎo
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ tewX ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*tˤiwʔ/
    English bird

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 9511
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    2
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*tɯːwʔ/

    Definitions[edit]

    1. bird (Classifier: m;  m)
      /   ―  yǎngniǎo  ―  to breed birds
    2. (dialectal) to pay attention; to heed; to take notice of
    Synonyms[edit]
    Dialectal synonyms of (“bird”) [map]
    Variety Location Words
    Classical Chinese
    Formal (Written Standard Chinese)
    Taxonomic name
    Mandarin Beijing 鳥兒
    Taiwan
    Harbin 鳥兒
    Jinan 鳥兒
    Jiedian 蟲蟻兒
    Xuzhou 鳥兒
    Yinchuan 鳥鳥子
    Ürümqi 雀娃子
    Wuhan 雀子
    Chengdu 雀雀雀兒鳥兒
    Guiyang
    Liuzhou 鳥崽
    Nanjing
    Cantonese Guangzhou 雀仔
    Hong Kong 雀仔
    Dongguan 雀仔鷝仔
    Hong Kong (Weitou) 雀仔
    Taishan 雀仔
    Gan Lichuan 鳥兒
    Pingxiang
    Hakka Meixian 鳥仔
    Yudu 鳥子
    Miaoli (N. Sixian) 鳥仔
    Liudui (S. Sixian) 鳥仔
    Hsinchu (Hailu) 鳥仔
    Dongshi (Dabu)
    Zhuolan (Raoping) 鳥仔
    Yunlin (Zhao'an)
    Hong Kong 鳥仔
    Jin Taiyuan 鳥兒
    Min Bei Jian'ou 隻仔
    Min Dong Fuzhou
    Fuqing
    Matsu 鳥囝
    Min Nan Xiamen 鳥仔
    Quanzhou 鳥仔
    Zhangzhou 鳥仔
    Taipei 鳥仔
    Kaohsiung 鳥仔
    Tainan 鳥仔
    Taichung 鳥仔
    Wuqi 鳥仔
    Hsinchu 鳥仔
    Taitung 鳥仔
    Lukang 鳥仔
    Yilan 鳥仔
    Magong
    Penang
    Chaozhou
    Shantou
    Haikou
    Leizhou
    Pinghua Nanning
    Wu Shanghai
    Suzhou
    Hangzhou 鳥兒
    Wenzhou
    Chongming
    Danyang 雀子
    Ningbo
    Xiang Changsha
    Loudi 鳥唧

    Compounds[edit]

    Pronunciation 2[edit]


    Definitions[edit]

    1. (vulgar) Alternative form of (diǎo).
      1. penis
      2. (intensifier) damned; goddamn
        /   ―  Nǐ zhè diǎo rén!  ―  You fucking prick!

    Descendants[edit]

    Sino-Xenic ():
    • Japanese:  (ちょう) (chō)
    • Korean: (, jo)
    • Vietnamese: điểu ()

    Japanese[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    (grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    Readings[edit]

    Compounds[edit]

    Etymology 1[edit]

    Japanese Wikipedia has an article on:
    Wikipedia ja
    English Wikipedia has an article on:
    Wikipedia
    (tori): various kinds of birds.
    Kanji in this term
    とり
    Grade: 2
    kun’yomi

    ⟨to2ri⟩/tori/

    From Old Japanese. Probably cognate with Middle Korean ᄃᆞᆰ (tolk), modern Korean (dak, fowl; chicken).

    May also be related to the Japanese verb 飛ぶ (tobu, to fly).

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Alternative forms[edit]

    • (usually a chicken):
    • (rare)

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana とり, rōmaji tori)

    1. a bird
      • 1999 July 5, “タクヒ [Takuhi]”, in BOOSTER 3 (in Japanese), Konami:
        このトリ (あらわ)れた (とき)は、 (なに) () (きつ) (こと) ()こる (まえ)ぶれ。
        Kono tori ga arawareta toki wa, nani ka fukitsu na koto ga okoru maebure.
        This bird brings bad luck to wherever it comes.
      • 1999 August 26, “セイント・バード [Saint Bird]”, in BOOSTER 4 (in Japanese), Konami:
         () (じょう) () (なが) (とり) (ぜん) (しん)から (せい)なる (ひかり) (はっ)する。
        Hijō ni o no nagai tori. Zenshin kara seinaru hikari o hassuru.
        A bird with an unusually long tail. It illuminates with holy light.
    2. a chicken
    3. fowl or chicken meat
    Derived terms[edit]

    Proper noun[edit]

    (hiragana とり, rōmaji Tori)

    1. a surname​.
    2. a unisex given name

    Etymology 2[edit]

    Kanji in this term

    Grade: 2
    kun’yomi

    ⟨to2ri⟩⟨*to2/to/

    From Old Japanese.[4][5] Appears to be a shift from tori above.

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Prefix[edit]

    (hiragana , rōmaji to-)

    1. a bird
    2. (more specifically) a chicken
    Usage notes[edit]

    Appears in old compounds. Does not appear to be productive in modern Japanese.

    Derived terms[edit]

    References[edit]

    1. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
    2. ^ 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN
    3. ^ Steven D. Carter (1991) Traditional Japanese Poetry: An Anthology, illustrated edition, Stanford University Press, →ISBN, page 225
    4. ^ 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
    5. ^ 1995, 大辞泉 (Daijisen) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan, →ISBN

    Korean[edit]

    Hanja[edit]

    (jo) (hangeul , revised jo, McCune–Reischauer cho, Yale co)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    Vietnamese[edit]

    Han character[edit]

    (điểu, đeo, đéo, đẽo)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.