to-

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English[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Middle English to-, from Old English tō-, te- (apart, away), from Proto-Germanic *twiz- (apart, in two), from Proto-Indo-European *dwis- (two-ways, in twain).

Prefix[edit]

to-

  1. (no longer productive) apart, away, asunder, in pieces; expressing separation, negation, or intensity[1].
Derived terms[edit]
Related terms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

From to.

Prefix[edit]

to-

  1. (rare, dialectal or no longer productive) to, toward, at, or on (this).
    today
    to-year
    tonight
    together
Derived terms[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Whitney, The Century dictionary and cyclopedia, to-

See also[edit]

Anagrams[edit]


Classical Nahuatl[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Prefix[edit]

to-

Etymology 1[edit]

  1. (personal prefix, possessive) Used to form the first-person plural possessive of nouns: our. Can combine with relational words to form relational adverbs.
    nāntzintli (mother)tonāntzin (our mother)
    calli (house)tocal (our house)
    -tlōc (beside)totlōc (beside us)

Derived terms[edit]

Category Classical Nahuatl nouns prefixed with to- not found

Etymology 2[edit]

  1. (personal prefix, reflexive) Used to form the first-person plural reflexive of transitive verbs: ourselves. May also indicate reciprocity between the 1st person party: we ____ each other. For certain verbs, this imparts an intransitive sense rather than a strictly reflexive one.
    titītza (to stretch something)titotitītzah (We stretch (ourselves))
    itta (to see something)titottah (We see ourselves, We look at each other)
    tolīnia (to bother someone, to make suffer)titotolīniah (We suffer, We are bothered)

Usage notes[edit]

As with the other reflexive prefixes and tla-, this prefixes causes deletion of initial i in verbs such as itta or ilpia, with the exception of verbs beginning with ih- such as ihquiti.

See also[edit]


Middle English[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From to (in the direction of), from Old English .

Alternative forms[edit]

Prefix[edit]

to-

  1. Affixed to verbs and verb inflections to impart a sense of motion, directionality and/or extension.
  2. Affixed to adjectives, adverbs and prepositions to impart a sense of approach, extension and/or proximity.
  3. (rare) Affixed to nouns to impart a sense of motion, directionality and/or extension.
Derived terms[edit]
Verbs and inflections formed with to-
Adjectives, adverbs and prepositions formed with to-
Nouns formed with to-
Descendants[edit]
  • English: to-

References[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

From Old English tō-, te- (apart, asunder).

Alternative forms[edit]

Prefix[edit]

to-

  1. Appended to verbs and nouns to impart a sense of separation and/or departure.
  2. Appended to verbs and nouns to intensify or emphasise the meaning.
Derived terms[edit]
Verbs and inflections formed with to-
Nouns formed with to-
Descendants[edit]

References[edit]


Old English[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Germanic *twiz-, from Proto-Indo-European *dwís. Cognate with Old Frisian ti-, te-, Old Saxon te-, Old High German zi-, zir-, zar-, zur- (German zer-), Gothic 𐌳𐌹𐍃- (dis-), and with Latin dis-.

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): /ˈtoː/ (as a nominal prefix)
  • IPA(key): /toː/ (as a verbal prefix)

Prefix[edit]

tō-

  1. verbal prefix with a sense of "in pieces, apart, asunder", or with intensive force
    tefeallan, tōfeallanto fall apart
    titwǣman, tōtwǣmanto separate
    tetorfian, tōtorfianto toss about
  2. used to form substantives from other nouns
    tōtalureputation
    tōsprǣċconversation

Usage notes[edit]

  • The prefix has two basic forms: stressed (tō-) and unstressed (te-, ti-). Originally, the unstressed formed verbs, and the stressed formed other derivatives (nouns, adverbs, etc). This distinction was blurred in later Old English where the stressed form came to be used for both.

Derived terms[edit]


Old Irish[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

  • do- (pretonic form)

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Celtic *tu-.

Prefix[edit]

to- (pretonic do-)

  1. prefix used to create verbs and associated verbal nouns

Usage notes[edit]

  • Verbs whose deuterotonic forms begin with this prefix followed by a stressed vowel are permitted to use prototonic forms even when normally a deuterotonic form would be used (i.e. in independent or relative position). For example:
    • c. 800, Würzburg Glosses on the Pauline Epistles, published in Thesaurus Palaeohibernicus (reprinted 1987, Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies), edited and with translations by Whitley Stokes and John Strachan, vol. I, pp. 499–712, Wb. 30d11
      Tánicc aimser mo idbarte-se.The time of offering me has come. (preterite of do·icc: prototonic tánicc used instead of deuterotonic do·ánicc)

Derived terms[edit]


Old Saxon[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Germanic *tō.

Prefix[edit]

to-

  1. Creates words with a sense of ‘towards, to, against’
    tōdōn (to add; to close)
    tōheftian (to fix)
    tōhlinon (to lean against)
    tōhnēgian (to neigh towards)
    tōrūnon (to whisper)
    tōsprekan (to speak with, discuss, talk to)
    tōstōtan (to push, thrust)
    tōward (future)
    tōwardes (near)
    tōwardig (near)
    tōwendian (to turn towards)

Derived terms[edit]

Category Old Saxon words prefixed with to- not found

Ternate[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

to-

  1. First-person singular proclitic, I
    Ngori tosonyinga moju ngana na demo se ngori.I still remember your words to me.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  • Rika Hayami-Allen (2001). A Descriptive Study of the Language of Ternate, the Northern Moluccas, Indonesia. University of Pittsburgh.

Wiyot[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Preverb[edit]

to-

  1. The definite article: the

References[edit]

  • Karl V. Teeter (1964) The Wiyot Language, University of California press, page 95

Wolio[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Malayo-Polynesian *taʀ-.

Pronunciation[edit]

Prefix[edit]

to-

  1. marks the impersonal passive of transitive verbs
    tobawa (to be brought)
  2. forms verbs expressing involuntary action
    tole'e (to urinate)

References[edit]

  • Anceaux, Johannes C. 1988. The Wolio Language. Dordrecht: Foris.