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Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
青-bw.png
Japanese stroke order
青-jbw.png

Han character[edit]

(radical 174 +0, 8 strokes, cangjie input 手一月 (QMB), four-corner 50227, composition)

Descendants[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: not present, would follow page 1381, character 19
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 42564
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1893, character 1
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 6, page 4046, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+9752

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.
alt. forms
𤯞

Glyph origin[edit]

Ideogrammic compound (會意):  ‎(growth of plants) +  ‎(cinnabar) – represents growing plants. Cinnabar was used for dyeing, and by extension, came to imply color in general, giving the combined meaning “color of growing plants” → “blue-green”.

Top component is cognate to , but bottom component now resembles the unrelated (“moon”).

Pronunciation[edit]



Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (14)
Final () (125)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () IV
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/t͡sʰeŋ/
Pan
Wuyun
/t͡sʰeŋ/
Shao
Rongfen
/t͡sʰɛŋ/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/t͡sʰɛjŋ/
Li
Rong
/t͡sʰeŋ/
Wang
Li
/t͡sʰieŋ/
Bernard
Karlgren
/t͡sʰieŋ/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
qīng
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
qīng
Middle
Chinese
‹ tsheng ›
Old
Chinese
/*[s.r̥]ˤeŋ/
English green or blue

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 11362
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*sʰleːŋ/
Notes

Definitions[edit]

  1. green (of grass, plants, mountain etc.)
  2. blue (of sky, stone etc.)
  3. black (of hair, cloth etc.)
  4. young

Usage notes[edit]

The meaning for blue and black of "青" is more commonly used in classical Chinese, while in modern Chinese, the meaning for green is more common, for example, "青山綠水/青山緑水" (hill and water green in colour), "青蘋果/青苹果" (green apple). However, there are still some expressions for the meaning of blue, e.g. "青天" (blue sky), "青出於藍/青出于蓝" (literal meaning: blue colour extracts from a plant of blue dye. Extended meaning and use: for saying someone performed better than his/her teacher).

In Cantonese the use of "青" to mean black is still used in circumstances where to use "黑" would be inauspicious as it is a homophone of "乞" or beggar, so for example "黑衣" used to describe clothing would be a homophone of both beggar and a beggar's garment.

Compounds[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(grade 1 “Kyōiku” kanji)

Readings[edit]

Compounds[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

/sawo/ (uncertain, may be compound as opposed to root)/awo//ao/

From Old Japanese.

Appears as the latter part in older compounds with an -s- infix or prefix. It is unclear if this leading /s/ is indicative of an earlier form (sawo), or if this was an addition for euphony to avoid vowel clusters, or for other reasons. This /s/ is also seen in ‎(ame, becoming same in old compounds) and ‎(ine, becoming shine in old compounds).

Given that this /s/ only ever appears interstitially, and given the semantics, this /s/ may be cognate with Korean interfix -ᄉ- ‎(-s-) used to mark possession, much like English 's.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

‎(hiragana あお, romaji ao, historical hiragana あを)

  1. blue
  2. the black, bluish color of a horse's hair; also, such a horse
    • 16031604, Nippo Jisho (page 39)[2]
      Auo. アヲ (青) 馬の毛色で, 全体に黒くてみがあり, 両耳の内側に多少白いところのあるもの. この部分の毛も他の部分と同じようにすっかり黒い時には, Curo(黒)と呼ばれる.
  3. green (traffic-light green is referred to as ao, as are plant leaves.)
Derived terms[edit]
See also[edit]
Colors in Japanese ·  (いろ) ‎(iro) (layout · text)
     赤色 (あかいろ) ‎(akairo)       (みどり) ‎(midori)      黄色 (きいろ) ‎(kiiro)      クリーム (いろ) ‎(kurīmuiro)       (しろ) ‎(shiro)
     深紅 (しんく) ‎(shinku),
クリムゾン ‎(kurimuzon),
紅色 (べにいろ) ‎(beniiro),
紅色 (くれないいろ) ‎(kurenaiiro)
     マゼンタ ‎(mazenta)      ?      黄緑 (きみどり) ‎(kimidori)      ピンク ‎(pinku),
桃色 (ももいろ) ‎(momoiro)
     ?       (あお) ‎(ao)      オレンジ ‎(orenji), 橙色 (だいだいいろ) ‎(daidaiiro)      灰色 (はいいろ) ‎(haiiro),
鼠色 (ねずみいろ) ‎(nezumiiro)
     ?
      (くろ) ‎(kuro)       (むらさき) ‎(murasaki)      茶色 (ちゃいろ) ‎(chairo),
褐色 (かっしょく) ‎(kasshoku)
     水色 (みずいろ) ‎(mizuiro)      シアン ‎(shian)

Etymology 2[edit]

Unknown. The reading might be an obscure term from Old Japanese or dialect. The use of the character arises from its 宋音 ‎(sōon, Song-dynasty pronunciation).[3]

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

‎(hiragana しい, romaji shī)

  1. (rare, archaic, mythology) a beast that looks like a weasel, and is said to have lived in present-day Fukuoka and Yamaguchi prefectures
  2. (rare, archaic, mythology) a beast that looks like a wolf, and is said to have appeared around Mount Yoshino

References[edit]

  1. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, ISBN 4-385-13905-9
  2. ^ Doi, Tadao (1603–1604) Hōyaku Nippo Jisho (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Iwanami Shoten, ISBN 978-4-00-080021-1, published 1980.
  3. ^ 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan

Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

‎(cheong)
Eumhun:

  • Sound (hangeul):  (revised: cheong, McCune-Reischauer: ch'ŏng, Yale: cheng)
  1. blue; green

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(thanh, thênh, xanh)

  1. green
  2. blue

References[edit]