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Translingual[edit]

Han character[edit]

(radical 140 +14, 20 strokes, cangjie input 廿尸戈廿 (TSIT) or 廿尸一廿 (TSMT), four-corner 44107, composition)

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 1064, character 16
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 32258
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1528, character 35
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 5, page 3311, character 8
  • Unihan data for U+85CD

Chinese[edit]

trad.
simp.

Glyph origin[edit]

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *ɡ·raːm): semantic  ‎(grass) + phonetic  ‎(OC *kraːm, *kraːms): The indigo plant

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *g-ram ‎(indigo). Cognate with Tibetan རམས ‎(rams, indigo), which Laufer (1916) considers to be a Chinese loan. Also compare Proto-Vietic *ɟaːm ‎(indigo) (> Vietnamese chàm) and Proto-Austronesian *taRum ‎(indigo plant and dye) (> Malay tarum).

Pronunciation[edit]



  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /lan³⁵/
Harbin /lan²⁴/
Tianjin /lan⁴⁵/
Jinan /lã⁴²/
Qingdao /lã⁴²/
Zhengzhou /lan⁴²/
Xi'an /lã²⁴/
Xining /lã²⁴/
Yinchuan /lan⁵³/
Lanzhou /lɛ̃n⁵³/
Ürümqi /lan⁵¹/
Wuhan /nan²¹³/
Chengdu /nan³¹/
Guiyang /nan²¹/
Kunming /lã̠³¹/
Nanjing /laŋ²⁴/
Hefei /læ̃⁵⁵/
Jin Taiyuan /læ̃¹¹/
Pingyao /lɑŋ¹³/
Hohhot /læ̃³¹/
Wu Shanghai /le²³/
Suzhou /le̞¹³/
Hangzhou /lẽ̞²¹³/
Wenzhou /la³¹/
Hui Shexian /lɛ⁴⁴/
Tunxi /lɔ⁴⁴/
Xiang Changsha /lan¹³/
Xiangtan /nan¹²/
Gan Nanchang /lan⁴⁵/
Hakka Meixian /lam¹¹/
Taoyuan /lɑm¹¹/
Cantonese Guangzhou /lam²¹/
Nanning /lam²¹/
Hong Kong /lam²¹/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /lam³⁵/
/na³⁵/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /laŋ⁵³/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /laŋ³³/
Shantou (Min Nan) /lam⁵⁵/
/nã⁵⁵/
Haikou (Min Nan) /lam³¹/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (37)
Final () (143)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () I
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/lɑm/
Pan
Wuyun
/lɑm/
Shao
Rongfen
/lɑm/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/lam/
Li
Rong
/lɑm/
Wang
Li
/lɑm/
Bernard
Karlgren
/lɑm/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
lán
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
lán
Middle
Chinese
‹ lam ›
Old
Chinese
/*[N-k.]rˤam/
English indigo

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 6082
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
1
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*ɡ·raːm/

Definitions[edit]

  1. blue
    /   ―  lán  ―  blue color
  2. indigo plant; Indigofera tinctoria
  3. A surname​. Lan

Descendants[edit]

Sino-Xenic ():

Others:

Compounds[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(common “Jōyō” kanji)

  1. The color indigo; the indigo plant.

Readings[edit]

Compounds[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Kanji in this term
あい
Grade: S
kun'yomi

Various theories, all suggesting a relation to ‎(ao, formerly awo, blue).

  • May be an alteration from 青色 ‎(awoiro): /awoiro/ > /awiro/ > /airo/ > /ai/
  • May simply be an alteration from ‎(awo): /awo/ > /awi/ > /ai/
  • May be derived from a compound of ‎(awo, blue) +‎ ‎(i, formerly wi, there is), expressing the sense that the plant contains the color blue: /awowi/ > /awi/ > /ai/

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

‎(hiragana あい, romaji ai, historical hiragana あゐ)

  1. the color indigo
  2. the indigo plant, species Indigofera tinctoria and related plants

Proper noun[edit]

‎(hiragana あい, romaji Ai)

  1. A female given name

Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

‎(ram>nam) (hangeul >, McCune-Reischauer ram>nam, Yale lam>nam)

  1. This entry needs a definition. Please add one, then remove {{defn}}.

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(lam, chàm, rôm, rườm, trôm, xám)

  1. This entry needs a definition. Please add one, then remove {{defn}}.

References[edit]