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See also: and
U+85CD, 藍
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-85CD

[U+85CC]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+85CE]

Translingual[edit]

Han character[edit]

(radical 140, +14 in Chinese and Korean, 艸+15 in Japanese, 18 strokes in traditional Chinese, Japanese and Korean, 17 strokes in mainland China, cangjie input 廿尸戈廿 (TSIT) or 廿尸一廿 (TSMT), four-corner 44107, composition)

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 1064, character 16
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 32258
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1528, character 35
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 5, page 3311, character 8
  • Unihan data for U+85CD

Chinese[edit]

trad.
simp.
variant forms second round simplified

Glyph origin[edit]

Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*ɡ·raːm
*ɡ·raːm
*ɡ·raːm
*ɡ·raːm, *ɡ·raːms
*ɡ·raːm
*ɡ·raːm, *qʰlaːms
*ɡ·raːmʔ
*ɡ·raːmʔ
*ɡ·raːmʔ
*ɡ·raːmʔ, *ɡ·raːms, *ɡ·rams
*ɡ·raːmʔ
*ɡ·raːmʔ
*ɡ·raːms, *ɡraːmʔ
*ɡ·raːms, *kʰlaːms, *qʰlaːmʔ
*ɡ·raːms
*kraːm, *kraːms
*kraːm
*kraːm, *kraːms, *kraːms
*ɡraːmʔ
*ɡraːmʔ, *ɡraːms
*ɡraːmʔ
*ɡraːmʔ
*ɡ·lam, *ɡ·lams

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *ɡ·raːm): semantic  (grass) + phonetic  (OC *kraːm, *kraːms): The indigo plant

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *g-ram (indigo). Cognate with Tibetan རམས (rams, indigo), which Laufer (1916) considers to be a Chinese loan. Also compare Proto-Vietic *ɟaːm (indigo) (> Vietnamese chàm) and Proto-Austronesian *taRum (indigo plant and dye) (> Malay tarum).

Pronunciation[edit]


Note:
  • nâ - vernacular;
  • lâm - literary.
Note:
  • lam5 - Chaozhou;
  • nam5 - Shantou;
  • na5 - surname.
  • Wu
  • Xiang

    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location
    Mandarin Beijing /lan³⁵/
    Harbin /lan²⁴/
    Tianjin /lan⁴⁵/
    Jinan /lã⁴²/
    Qingdao /lã⁴²/
    Zhengzhou /lan⁴²/
    Xi'an /lã²⁴/
    Xining /lã²⁴/
    Yinchuan /lan⁵³/
    Lanzhou /lɛ̃n⁵³/
    Ürümqi /lan⁵¹/
    Wuhan /nan²¹³/
    Chengdu /nan³¹/
    Guiyang /nan²¹/
    Kunming /lã̠³¹/
    Nanjing /laŋ²⁴/
    Hefei /læ̃⁵⁵/
    Jin Taiyuan /læ̃¹¹/
    Pingyao /lɑŋ¹³/
    Hohhot /læ̃³¹/
    Wu Shanghai /le²³/
    Suzhou /le̞¹³/
    Hangzhou /lẽ̞²¹³/
    Wenzhou /la³¹/
    Hui Shexian /lɛ⁴⁴/
    Tunxi /lɔ⁴⁴/
    Xiang Changsha /lan¹³/
    Xiangtan /nan¹²/
    Gan Nanchang /lan⁴⁵/
    Hakka Meixian /lam¹¹/
    Taoyuan /lɑm¹¹/
    Cantonese Guangzhou /lam²¹/
    Nanning /lam²¹/
    Hong Kong /lam²¹/
    Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /lam³⁵/
    /na³⁵/
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /laŋ⁵³/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /laŋ³³/
    Shantou (Min Nan) /lam⁵⁵/
    /nã⁵⁵/
    Haikou (Min Nan) /lam³¹/

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (37)
    Final () (143)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () I
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /lɑm/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /lɑm/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /lɑm/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /lam/
    Li
    Rong
    /lɑm/
    Wang
    Li
    /lɑm/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /lɑm/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    lán
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    lán
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ lam ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*[N-k.]rˤam/
    English indigo

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 6082
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    1
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*ɡ·raːm/

    Definitions[edit]

    1. blue
      /   ―  lán  ―  blue color
    2. indigo plant; Indigofera tinctoria
    3. (politics) related to the pro-unification pan-Blue coalition of Taiwan
    4. A surname​. Lan

    Descendants[edit]

    Sino-Xenic ():
    • Japanese:  (らん) (ran)
    • Korean: (, nam)
    • Vietnamese: lam ()

    Others:

    Compounds[edit]


    Japanese[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    (common “Jōyō” kanji)

    1. the Japanese indigo or Chinese indigo plant, Persicaria tinctoria
    2. the color indigo
    3. kanji used to transliterate Buddhist terms borrowed from Sanskrit

    Readings[edit]

    Compounds[edit]

    Etymology[edit]

    Japanese Wikipedia has an article on:
    Wikipedia ja
    Japanese Wikipedia has an article on:
    Wikipedia ja
    English Wikipedia has an article on:
    Wikipedia
    Japanese Wikipedia has an article on:
    Wikipedia ja
    English Wikipedia has an article on:
    Wikipedia
    (ai): the color indigo.
    Kanji in this term
    あい
    Grade: S
    kun’yomi

    /awi/ → */aji//ai/

    From Old Japanese.

    There are various theories regarding the ultimate derivation, all suggesting a relation to (awo → ao, blue):

    • May be an alteration from 青色 (awoiro → aoiro):
      ⟨awoiro2/awiro//airo//ai/
    • May simply be an alteration from (awo → ao):
      /awo//awi/ → */aji//ai/
    • May be derived from a compound of (awo → ao) +‎ (wi → i, there is), expressing the sense that the indigo plant contains the color blue:
      /awowi/ → */awːi//awi/ → */aji//ai/

    Given that many Old Japanese terms have been derived from adding an empathic nominative particle (i), and the spelling was historically awi, the second derivation seems likely.

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana あい, katakana アイ, rōmaji ai, historical hiragana あゐ, historical katakana アヰ)

    1. the Japanese indigo or Chinese indigo plant, Persicaria tinctoria
      Synonyms: 藍蓼 (aitade), 蓼藍 (tade-ai)
      Hypernym: (tade)
    2. the color indigo, from the dye processed from the stems and leaves of various indigo plants
      Synonyms: 藍色 (aiiro, ranshoku), インジゴ (injigo), インディゴ (indigo)
    3. Short for 藍蝋 (airō): indigo pigment made from boiled-down indigo dye liquid

    Usage notes[edit]

    As with many terms that name organisms, this term is often spelled in katakana, especially in biological contexts, as アイ.

    Derived terms[edit]

    Proverbs[edit]

    Proper noun[edit]

    (hiragana あい, rōmaji Ai, historical hiragana あゐ)

    1. a female given name
    2. a surname

    References[edit]

    1. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
    2. ^ 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN
    3. ^ 1997, 新明解国語辞典 (Shin Meikai Kokugo Jiten), Fifth Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
    • 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan

    Further reading[edit]


    Korean[edit]

    Hanja[edit]

    (ram>nam) (hangeul >, McCune–Reischauer ram>nam, Yale lam>nam)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    Vietnamese[edit]

    Han character[edit]

    (lam, chàm, rôm, rườm, trôm, xám)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    References[edit]