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Translingual[edit]

Traditional
Shinjitai
Simplified

Han character[edit]

(radical 197 +13, 24 strokes, cangjie input 尸田月廿 (SWBT), four-corner 78107, composition ⿱⿰𠂉)

Derived characters[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 1508, character 7
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 47579
  • Dae Jaweon: page 2036, character 8
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 4, page 2574, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+9E7D

Chinese[edit]

trad.
simp.
alt. forms

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Large seal script Small seal script
鹽-bigseal.svg 鹽-seal.svg

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *ɡ·lam, *ɡ·lams): phonetic  ‎(OC *kraːm, *kraːms) + semantic  ‎(salt).

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *g-rjum. The Min forms point to a fricative initial in Proto-Min: *ziem (“a white encrustation formed from saltwater or brine”).

Pronunciation 1[edit]



  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /ian³⁵/
Harbin /ian²⁴/
Tianjin /ian⁴⁵/
Jinan /iã⁴²/
Qingdao /iã⁴²/
Zhengzhou /ian⁴²/
Xi'an /iã²⁴/
Xining /iã²⁴/
Yinchuan /ian⁵³/
Lanzhou /iɛ̃n⁵³/
Ürümqi /ian⁵¹/
Wuhan /iɛn²¹³/
Chengdu /ian³¹/
Guiyang /ian²¹/
Kunming /iɛ̃³¹/
Nanjing /ien²⁴/
Hefei /iĩ⁵⁵/
Jin Taiyuan /ie¹¹/
Pingyao /ie̞¹³/
Hohhot /ie³¹/
Wu Shanghai /ɦi²³/
Suzhou /ɦiɪ¹³/
Hangzhou /ɦiẽ̞²¹³/
Wenzhou /ji³¹/
Hui Shexian /ie⁴⁴/
Tunxi /iɛ⁴⁴/
Xiang Changsha /iẽ¹³/
Xiangtan /iẽ¹²/
Gan Nanchang /iɛn⁴⁵/
Hakka Meixian /iam¹¹/
Taoyuan /ʒɑm¹¹/
Cantonese Guangzhou /jim²¹/
Nanning /jim²¹/
Hong Kong /jim²¹/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /iam³⁵/
/sĩ³⁵/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /sieŋ⁵³/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /iŋ³³/
Shantou (Min Nan) /iam⁵⁵/
Haikou (Min Nan) /iam³¹/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/2
Initial () (36)
Final () (153)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/jiᴇm/
Pan
Wuyun
/jiɛm/
Shao
Rongfen
/jæm/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/jiam/
Li
Rong
/iɛm/
Wang
Li
/jĭɛm/
Bernard
Karlgren
/i̯ɛm/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
yán
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/2
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
yán
Middle
Chinese
‹ yem ›
Old
Chinese
/*[ɢr][o]m/
English salt (n.)

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/2
No. 6116
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
1
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*ɡ·lam/

Definitions[edit]

  1. salt; salty substance
  2. table salt
  3. (chemistry) salt

Pronunciation 2[edit]


Rime
Character
Reading # 2/2
Initial () (36)
Final () (153)
Tone (調) Departing (H)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/jiᴇmH/
Pan
Wuyun
/jiɛmH/
Shao
Rongfen
/jæmH/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/jiamH/
Li
Rong
/iɛmH/
Wang
Li
/jĭɛmH/
Bernard
Karlgren
/i̯ɛmH/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
yàn
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 2/2
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
yàn
Middle
Chinese
‹ yemH ›
Old
Chinese
/*[ɢr][o]m-s/
English salt (v.)

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 2/2
No. 6117
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
1
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*ɡ·lams/

Definitions[edit]

  1. to salt; to pickle; to marinate
  2. Alternative form of (yàn, “to envy”).

Compounds[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(uncommon “Hyōgai” kanjikyūjitai kanji, shinjitai form )

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

Readings[edit]

Noun[edit]

‎(kyūjitai kanji, shinjitai kanji , hiragana しお, romaji shio, historical hiragana しほ)

  1. salt

Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

‎(yeom)
Eumhun:

  • Sound (hangeul):  (McCune-Reischauer: yŏm, Yale: yem)
  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(diêm)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.