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See also:
U+9E7D, 鹽
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-9E7D

[U+9E7C]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+9E7E]

Translingual[edit]

Traditional
Shinjitai
Simplified

Han character[edit]

(radical 197, +13, 24 strokes, cangjie input 尸田月廿 (SWBT), four-corner 78107, composition ⿱⿰𠂉)

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 1508, character 7
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 47579
  • Dae Jaweon: page 2036, character 8
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 4, page 2574, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+9E7D

Chinese[edit]

trad.
simp.
alt. forms

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
鹽-seal.svg 鹽-bigseal.svg
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*ɡ·raːm
*ɡ·raːm
*ɡ·raːm
*ɡ·raːm, *ɡ·raːms
*ɡ·raːm
*ɡ·raːm, *qʰlaːms
*ɡ·raːmʔ
*ɡ·raːmʔ
*ɡ·raːmʔ
*ɡ·raːmʔ, *ɡ·raːms, *ɡ·rams
*ɡ·raːmʔ
*ɡ·raːmʔ
*ɡ·raːms, *ɡraːmʔ
*ɡ·raːms, *kʰlaːms, *qʰlaːmʔ
*ɡ·raːms
*kraːm, *kraːms
*kraːm
*kraːm, *kraːms, *kraːms
*ɡraːmʔ
*ɡraːmʔ, *ɡraːms
*ɡraːmʔ
*ɡraːmʔ
*ɡ·lam, *ɡ·lams

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *ɡ·lam, *ɡ·lams): phonetic  (OC *kraːm, *kraːms) + semantic  (salt).

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *g-rjum. The Min forms point to a fricative initial in Proto-Min: *ziem (“a white encrustation formed from saltwater or brine”).

Pronunciation 1[edit]


Note:
  • sièng - vernacular;
  • ièng - literary.
  • Min Nan
  • Note:
    • iâm - literary (“salt”);
    • sîⁿ - vernacular (“pickled food product; efflorescence”).
  • Wu

    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location
    Mandarin Beijing /ian³⁵/
    Harbin /ian²⁴/
    Tianjin /ian⁴⁵/
    Jinan /iã⁴²/
    Qingdao /iã⁴²/
    Zhengzhou /ian⁴²/
    Xi'an /iã²⁴/
    Xining /iã²⁴/
    Yinchuan /ian⁵³/
    Lanzhou /iɛ̃n⁵³/
    Ürümqi /ian⁵¹/
    Wuhan /iɛn²¹³/
    Chengdu /ian³¹/
    Guiyang /ian²¹/
    Kunming /iɛ̃³¹/
    Nanjing /ien²⁴/
    Hefei /iĩ⁵⁵/
    Jin Taiyuan /ie¹¹/
    Pingyao /ie̞¹³/
    Hohhot /ie³¹/
    Wu Shanghai /ɦi²³/
    Suzhou /ɦiɪ¹³/
    Hangzhou /ɦiẽ̞²¹³/
    Wenzhou /ji³¹/
    Hui Shexian /ie⁴⁴/
    Tunxi /iɛ⁴⁴/
    Xiang Changsha /iẽ¹³/
    Xiangtan /iẽ¹²/
    Gan Nanchang /iɛn⁴⁵/
    Hakka Meixian /iam¹¹/
    Taoyuan /ʒɑm¹¹/
    Cantonese Guangzhou /jim²¹/
    Nanning /jim²¹/
    Hong Kong /jim²¹/
    Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /iam³⁵/
    /sĩ³⁵/
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /sieŋ⁵³/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /iŋ³³/
    Shantou (Min Nan) /iam⁵⁵/
    Haikou (Min Nan) /iam³¹/

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    Initial () (36)
    Final () (153)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /jiᴇm/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /jiɛm/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /jæm/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /jiam/
    Li
    Rong
    /iɛm/
    Wang
    Li
    /jĭɛm/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /i̯ɛm/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    yán
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    yán
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ yem ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*[ɢr][o]m/
    English salt (n.)

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    No. 6116
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    1
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*ɡ·lam/

    Definitions[edit]

    1. salt; salty substance, especially table salt
    2. (chemistry) salt
    3. (Min Nan) food product pickled with salt
    4. (Min Nan) sweat stain; salt efflorescence

    Compounds[edit]

    Pronunciation 2[edit]


    Note:
    • sīⁿ - vernacular (usually substituted by );
    • iām - literary.

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    Initial () (36)
    Final () (153)
    Tone (調) Departing (H)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /jiᴇmH/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /jiɛmH/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /jæmH/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /jiamH/
    Li
    Rong
    /iɛmH/
    Wang
    Li
    /jĭɛmH/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /i̯ɛmH/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    yàn
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    yàn
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ yemH ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*[ɢr][o]m-s/
    English salt (v.)

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    No. 6117
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    1
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*ɡ·lams/

    Definitions[edit]

    1. (Min) to salt; to lay in brine; to pickle; to marinate
    2. (Min Dong) to devote oneself to; to invest
    3. (Min Nan, of a wound) irritated; painful (from salt or medication)
    4. Alternative form of (yàn, “to envy”).

    Japanese[edit]

    Shinjitai

    Kyūjitai

    Kanji[edit]

    (uncommon “Hyōgai” kanjikyūjitai kanji, shinjitai form )

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    Readings[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (kyūjitai kanji, shinjitai kanji , hiragana しお, rōmaji shio, historical hiragana しほ)

    1. salt

    Korean[edit]

    Hanja[edit]

    (yeom)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    Vietnamese[edit]

    Han character[edit]

    (diêm)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.