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See also:
U+8266, 艦
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-8266

[U+8265]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+8267]

Translingual[edit]

Han character[edit]

(Kangxi radical 137, +14 in Chinese, 舟+15 in Japanese, 20 strokes in Chinese, 21 strokes in Japanese, cangjie input 竹卜尸戈廿 (HYSIT) or 竹卜尸一廿 (HYSMT), four-corner 28417, composition)

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 1013, character 1
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 30571
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1471, character 29
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 5, page 3069, character 8
  • Unihan data for U+8266

Chinese[edit]

trad.
simp. *

Glyph origin[edit]

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *ɡraːmʔ): semantic + phonetic (OC *kraːm, *kraːms).

Etymology[edit]

"Warship (with boards installed on its four sides to defend against arrow attacks)" (Shiming) > "warship" > "ship" (Guangya). A specialised character derived from (OC *ɡraːmʔ, *ɡraːms, “fence, railing, board”); see there for more on the external etymology.

This character is a classic example of historical misreadings of unfamiliar characters. The l- initial in southern dialects is probably due to confusion with (MC lɑmH, “to overflow”), not due to divergent evolutions of the Old Chinese cluster initial *gr- as this character is often cited as an example of. Likewise, the readings in other Chinese are misreadings, although this is more subtle. Expected Mandarin reflex is xiàn, and jiàn is due to confusion with (MC kˠamH, “mirror; to reflect”). Wu and Min Dong readings are results of confusion with (MC ɦˠamX, “doorsill”). Despite these irregularities, all the Sinoxenic readings are regular.

Pronunciation[edit]



Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (33)
Final () (149)
Tone (調) Rising (X)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () II
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ɦˠamX/
Pan
Wuyun
/ɦᵚamX/
Shao
Rongfen
/ɣamX/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ɦaɨmX/
Li
Rong
/ɣamX/
Wang
Li
/ɣamX/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ɣamX/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
xiàn
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
haam6
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 6109
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
1
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*ɡraːmʔ/
Notes

Definitions[edit]

  1. warship

Compounds[edit]

Descendants[edit]

Sino-Xenic ():
  • Japanese: (かん) (kan)
  • Korean: (, ham)
  • Vietnamese: hạm ()

References[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(common “Jōyō” kanji)

Readings[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Kanji in this term
かん
Grade: S
on’yomi

Noun[edit]

(かん) (kan

  1. warship

Synonyms[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  2. ^ 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN

Korean[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Middle Chinese (MC ɦˠamX).

Historical Readings
Dongguk Jeongun Reading
Dongguk Jeongun, 1448 ᅘᅡᆷ〯 (Yale: hhǎm)
Middle Korean
Text Eumhun
Gloss (hun) Reading
Hunmong Jahoe, 1527[2] ᄇᆡ〮 (Yale: póy) 함〯 (Yale: hǎm)

Pronunciation[edit]

  • (SK Standard/Seoul) IPA(key): [ha̠(ː)m]
  • Phonetic hangul: [(ː)]
    • Though still prescriptive in Standard Korean, most speakers in both Koreas no longer distinguish vowel length.

Hanja[edit]

Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

Wikisource

(eumhun 싸움 (ssaumbae ham))

  1. Hanja form? of (warship). [noun]

Compounds[edit]

References[edit]

  • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [3]

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

: Hán Nôm readings: hạm

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.