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Translingual[edit]

Han character[edit]

(radical 137 +14, 20 strokes, cangjie input 竹卜尸戈廿 (HYSIT) or 竹卜尸一廿 (HYSMT), four-corner 28417, composition)

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 1013, character 1
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 30571
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1471, character 29
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 5, page 3069, character 8
  • Unihan data for U+8266

Chinese[edit]

trad.
simp.

Glyph origin[edit]

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *ɡraːmʔ): semantic  + phonetic  ‎(OC *kraːm, *kraːms).

Etymology[edit]

"Warship (with boards installed on its four sides to defend against arrow attacks)" (Shiming) > "warship" > "ship" (Guangya). A specialised character derived from (OC *ɡraːmʔ, *ɡraːms, “fence, railing, board”); see there for more on the external etymology.

This character is a classic example of historical misreadings of unfamiliar characters. The l- initial in southern dialects is probably due to confusion with (MC lɑmH, “to overflow”), not due to divergent evolutions of the Old Chinese cluster initial *gr- as this character is often cited as an example of. Likewise, the readings in other Chinese are misreadings, although this is more subtle. Expected Mandarin reflex is xiàn, and jiàn is due to confusion with (MC kɣamH, “mirror; to reflect”). Wu and Min Dong readings are results of confusion with (MC ɦɣamX, “doorsill”). Despite these irregularities, all the Sinoxenic readings are regular.

Pronunciation[edit]



Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (33)
Final () (149)
Tone (調) Rising (X)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () II
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ɦɣamX/
Pan
Wuyun
/ɦɯamX/
Shao
Rongfen
/ɣamX/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ɦaɨmX/
Li
Rong
/ɣamX/
Wang
Li
/ɣamX/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ɣamX/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
xiàn
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 6109
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
1
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*ɡraːmʔ/
Notes

Noun[edit]

  1. warship

Compounds[edit]

Descendants[edit]

Sino-Xenic ():

Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(common “Jōyō” kanji)

  1. warship

Readings[edit]

Compounds[edit]

Kanji in this term
かん
Grade: S
on'yomi

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

‎(hiragana かん, romaji kan)

  1. warship

References[edit]

  1. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, ISBN 4-385-13905-9
  2. ^ 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, ISBN 978-4-14-011112-3

Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

‎(ham) (hangeul , revised ham, McCune-Reischauer ham, Yale ham)

  1. This entry needs a definition. Please add one, then remove {{defn}}.

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(hạm)

  1. This entry needs a definition. Please add one, then remove {{defn}}.